One of the problems in researching the Temple that has not been solved is its location. Using a special method of research, the temple's location may be estimated along with its levels. Using this method, the relationships in the expanse between the functions that were outside of the temple mount and their relationship to the Temple were examined, for example, the water supply to the Temple.
The literary descriptions were also examined in light of Jerusalem's topographic reality, for example, locating the crag upon which the Antonia Fortress stood.
In light of these tests, the following assumptions may be made:
° The remains of the Jewish Temple are concealed within the expanse that is between the Dome of the Rock and the El Aksa Mosque
° The level of the Herodian Temple mount is sixteen meters lower than the level of the present day square
° The Dome of the Rock resides at the location of the Antonia Fortress
By comparing the site's measurements, style and method of construction with other similar sites built throughout the Roman Empire from an architectural point of view, it may be assumed that the Haram el Sharif was built during the second century.
It may be proved that the El Aksa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock were built on top of the remains of a Roman temple like the Temple to Jupiter that was built in Baal Bek in Lebanon.
It may be assumed that the Roman emperor Adrianos built the Haram el Sharif and not Herod. Following Adrianos' victory over Bar Kochba, he evicted the Jews from Jerusalem and covered the remains of the Jewish Temple. He erected a statue of himself riding a horse on the location of the Holy of Holies and around the Temple Mount, which was small itself, he built a giant wall that restricted Haram el Sharif. It was there that he built the Temple to Jupiter.
In accordance with this study, the Wailing Wall, the place where the Jews have been saying their prayers for over four hundred, is located exactly opposite the Temple and the Holy of Holies.
Between the boundaries 2000
To my Palestinian brothers,
The Palestinian nation, which is entirely Arab and mostly Moslem,
must verify whether erection of a Palestinian authority within
the Land of Israel is consistent with the Moslem spirit and with
the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed?
Is the struggle against the Jewish people who have returned to their land, one that is supported by Islam, or perhaps it is something that goes against the spirit of Islam and the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed?
In the Koran, (Table Sura 23,24) it is written: Moshe calls to his people, the Jewish people and says: "come to the Holy Land that was given to you by the Lord and don't be left behind."
In the Koran (Night Journey Sura 26) it is written that Allah say to the people of Israel "Settle in the Land of Israel."
Erection of a Palestinian state that would not allow the Jews
to reside in the Promised Land is in opposition to the Creator's
edict and the words of the prophet Mohammed.
The Jews are carrying out the words of God, but you, through your actions, in opposing Jewish settlement, are acting in opposition to what is stated in the Koran.
Mohammed determined that Mecca, despite its holiness, would not serve as a capital for Moslems, rather determining that the city of Medina would be the capital. Even the Caliphs that came after him made Kifa, Damascus, and Cairo their capitals, without detriment to Mecca's standing as a holy place and as a place for pilgrimage.
Why are you transgressing and going astray from the path of Mohammed by requesting that Holy Jerusalem be made the capital of the Palestinian nation? Jerusalem has never served as a capital for the Arab people.
Mohammed rose to heaven from the Dome of the Rock when the Land of Israel was ruled by the Byzantine Christians. So why does the holiness of the rock necessitate Moslem control over the Dome of the Rock?
The rock has remained and will remain holy no matter who has control over Jerusalem, especially if it is the Jewish people who, according to the prophet Mohammed are worth of controlling the Land of Israel.
Herem el Sharif is not a holy place, rather a courtyard that
serves the holy places, the Dome of the Rock and the El Aksa
Mosque, therefore those who have passed over are allowed to pass
through the El Sharif courtyard and shoes are only removed at
the entrance to the El Aksa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock.
Why won't you allow the Jews to pray at a place that is not holy to the Moslems, at Haram el Sharif?
Mohammed determined that in their prayers, the Moslems would turn towards where they are accepted and likewise the Jews would turn towards where they are accepted. "They will not agree to your direction of prayer just as you will agree to their direction" (the Night Journey chapter).
The Moslems have their own direction for prayer and location
for pilgrimage in Mecca, so why prevent the Jews from going to
pray in their pilgrimage location, in Haram el Sharif? The Western
Wall is a temporary location, since over the course of generations,
you have not allowed the Jews to go up to Herem el Sharif.
Demands made by the Palestinian leaders to the Jews and to Israel are in opposition with the words of Mohammed the prophet and the spirit of the Koran. It is not surprising that for over 100 years the Jews have been successful in returning to their land and carrying out the words of Allah as they were prophesied by the prophets and the Prophet Mohammed.
My Palestinian brothers, your leaders are misleading you and diverting you away from the Moslem faith, and this will only bring upon your suffering. Therefore, go in the way of truth, fulfill the words of the prophet and let the Jews settle and cause all of the Holy Land to flourish. Do your part to unite Jerusalem under Jewish sovereignty and you will be blessed.
What is stated above is based on an article by Avadal Hadi Palatzi "Jerusalem United under Israeli Rule" Nativ 60, Tevet, 1998
File: General / 638
Mr. Ehud Barak
The Government of Israel
Subject: The Temple Mount
The Temple Mount is a source of conflict between Israel and the Arab nations.
The conflict regarding the future of Israeli territory will not end until a solution to the religious and nationalistic claims by every party with regards to the Haram el Sharif known as the Temple Mount is found.
This place is drenched in religious, national and political
emotions rendering it difficult to find a rational solution to
It is not surprising that individuals and groups have thought of shortening the process by attempting to forcefully remove the structures that are holy to Moslems.
Eliminating them and their ideologies does not guarantee that other parties will not arise who just might carry out this nightmare.
Harming the Moslem structures on the site is liable to be the fuse that could ignite into a global war.
All the endeavors at peace that have been built and are being built with so much effort will shatter onto the ruins of the Mosque and the Dome of the Rock.
As an architect, I have been studying this subject for over ten years. According to the results of my study, the Jewish Temple was not located on the Dome of the Rock.
The remains of the Temple are located between the El Aksa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock, approximately sixteen levels under the level the site's square. (See diagram no. 1)
The accuracy of my assumptions may be of assistance in solving the Arab-Israeli conflict.
The El Aksa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock will remain in their present locations to serve the Moslem public.
The remains of the Jewish Temple will be unearthed at their low level allowing the Jews access to the Temple location from the open square area of the Western Wall. (See diagram no. 2)
Due to the importance, the sensitivity, and the implications of this subject, I am requesting that a team of experts be appointed to test my assumptions.
Cc: Minister of Religion Rabbi
Minister of Construction and Housing Y. Levi
Mayer of Jerusalem E. Almert
The antiquities Authority A. Drori
Members of the Knesset
Enclosed: Research summary and diagrams
Posted: September 3, 2000
Full details: The Temple Mount Web Site