Phaeton, The Lost Planet: Appendices, by Tim Unruh
THE FIRST ONE-HUNDRED ASTEROIDS OR MINOR PLANETS,
BY NAME; ORDER, DATE, AND PLACE OF DISCOVERY;
AND THE NAME OF THEIR DISCOVERERS
(Source: Smithsonian Institution Astrophysical Observatory)
Numbers 1-43 (119k JPG)
Numbers 44-100 (145k JPG)
A COSMOLOGICAL VIEWPOINT THAT IS OF STRATEGIC
TO BIBLICAL INSPIRATION, INERRANCY, AND AUTHORITY
Probably the single most important event in history as affecting Christian as well as secular thought since the time of Christ was the Copernican Revolution in the 16th and 17th centuries. Nothing compares to it in the degree to which it has diminished the Christian cause. An examination of the fruit of this formidable tree will disclose a source rife with ill motive and hidden agendas, bent on "liberating" man from God. Thus in the twentieth century we live in a decidedly post-Christian or non-Christian scientific and technological world.
Four hundred years ago a debate was raging between the learned men of Europe. The debate involved the question of whether the Earth revolves around the Sun or the Sun revolves around the Earth - the issue of heliocentrism versus geocentrism. Up to that time the commonly accepted model of the universe exhibited that the Moon, stars, planets, etc., moved in realms which were essentially centered on the Earth. Consistent with this was the view that the Earth was not only central in terms of God's benign attentions, affections, and purpose, but also central in its cosmological context. It was to our most special world that God Almighty, Creator of heaven and Earth, came in the person of Jesus the Christ. It was on Earth that Jesus died; and it was on Earth that he was resurrected for the sins of man, not for any other creature of the cosmos. It is on Earth that those things which "the angels dare to look into " (I Peter 1:12) are occurring. How sensible that the Earth should be nestled immobile at the center of the universe, as evidence in the Bible strongly indicates, rather than, as the present day view holds, that it is an insignificant spinning planet circling an insignificant star in an endless cosmos. It was obvious to a few scholars of the day that Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) had basically "borrowed" the concept from Aristarchus, an ancient mathematician, and worked it over only to put his own name on it when he wrote his book On the Revolutions Of The Celestial Spheres. Although the manuscript of the book actually gave credit to Aristarshus this note of indebtedness was dropped from the publication itself in 1543. Thus it is that the name of Copernicus alone has become synonymous with the hypothesis that the Earth revolves daily on an axis and orbits the Sun annually. The dethronement of the Earth from the center of the universe, and its "release" from immobility, caused profound shock. No longer could the Earth be considered the epitome of the physical creation. This successful challenge required a complete change in man's thinking and this change upon which "modern everything" rests was ultimately a revolution against the authority of the Bible itself. The debate was, and still is, over the Bible. The bottom line is, either man's science is right or the Bible is right. This is what rightly is called the "Copernican Revolution."
With the defeat of the Earth centered view, humanists heralded the death of the Bible as the word of God and, as a result, the death of Christianity as a reasonable faith. Contributing to the defeat of the Bible as the authority in nature were many names. Among the most notable are Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, and Galileo Galilei. At that time Copernicus, who was a Polish canon, earned his living preparing horoscopes for his mentor. Despite the best efforts of vocal and enthusiastic supporters such as Galileo, it took almost a hundred years for heliocentrism to become the dominant opinion; and it did so without any scientific evidence in its favor, and through an immutable set of man made "laws." Meanwhile, there have been supporters of geocentricity all along. Among the most famous and capable of the early geocentric defenders were Tycho Brahe and three generations of the Parisian astronomers Cassini. In the last half of the twentieth century, geocentrism has resurfaced in the technically correct form called geocentricity, championed by many rather obscure although very capable Christian adherents.
The reader may be puzzled by such a recurrence of this old, "long dead" idea. Little realized to most Christians, although, is the fact that modern science has not actually proven the superiority of the heliocentric model over the geocentric arrangement of the universe after all. Furthermore, virtually unrecognized is the fact that the ultimate issue at stake here is not one of science but one of the inerrancy and preservation of Scripture, especially in light of the fickle pronouncements of science. The Copernican Revolution, as this change of view is called, was not just a revolution amidst the queen of sciences, astronomy, but also a revolution which spread into politics, theology, and essentially all other areas of human endeavor. The following centuries witnessed, among things, the rise of uniformitarianism in geology, evolution in biology, and Einsteinian relativity in physics. All of these, which descend from the Copernican event, have had a decided impact on our world and life view. In particular, it set the stage for the development and advance of Biblical criticism.
Accommodation is the theory that God goes along with the commonly accepted story even though he does not really believe it. As a result of the Copernican phenomenon many modern theologians have drifted away from the opinions of the early Church fathers, modifying their views to harmonize Scripture with modern science. With the rise of rationalism many theological reinterpretations have been made in deference to the "authority" of modern science rather than to the higher authority of Scripture, thus making them much more acceptable in our sophisticated age. This has only resulted in our present state of affairs which reflects an ever more decidedly anti-Christian society.
Copernicanism (Aristarchanism) militates directly against the Word of God (Hebrews 11:3; 1:3). "To bear (up) or carry" God's power sustains the weight (or forces) of the universe, not man's mutable laws. By the grace of God, and with a knowledge of Biblical truth and an understanding of the demonic forces of anti-Christ behind world events, we are in a position to reverse the dreadful consequences of this heritage of deception stemming from a sixteenth century activist, intelligent yet errant, who received his inspiration from the abyss. "Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit." (Matthew 7:17)
That the Bible is inherently non-heliocentric can be readily ascertained at the outset. For instance, if the reader will examine the first chapter of Genesis it can be noted that the Barth was made on the first day of the creative week. It was not until the fourth day that He made the Sun. One must then ask himself, what was the Barth going around until the fourth day? For further information on this vitally important issue of geocentricity the reader will find the following sources to be of significant value: Bouw, Gerardus D., Ph.D., Geocentricity, Association for Biblical Astronomy, 4527 Wetzel Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44109, 1992.
The diagram above shows an idealized solar system in a geocentric context. This model accommodates all the appearances, to the earthbound observer, of the present day "heliocentric" model. This arrangement of the Sun, Moon, and planets, although not to scale, is consistent with the Holy Bible. The stars and the orbits of the planets are focused on the Sun. Earth is represented by the 'cross-haired" circle, seen to the off-center, although the model of the entire universe annually oscillates counter-clockwise along the larger of the two circles centered on the Earth. The path of the Moon is represented by the smaller circle. This figure is based on a diagram which first appeared in Tycho Brahe's De Mundi Aetheriei Recentioribus Phaenonenis, 1588.
FLAMMARION'S FAMOUS WOODCUT
This popular illustration which has appeared in countless books on astronomy was first made in 1888 by Camille Flammarion (1842-1925), a French popularizer of astronomy. In it he portrays his opinion of the Medieval world's flat-Earth view. The writings of that era and of the renaissance, although, belies that view. In 1578 the naturalist Lambert Daneau defended the sphericity of the Earth in his book The Wonderful Workmanship of the World, on the grounds of Scripture as well as from a geometer's viewpoint. That the Bible is also overtly geocentric, regarding the immobility and centrality of the Earth in the cosmos, has been noted by believer and nonbeliever alike.
There are at least a dozen major religions in the world, each along with its celebrated founder. They are all different, so that they cannot all be right, in spite of the adamant claims of the adherents of each one that their own is "the way." There is only one God. In some countries people burn incense, bring offerings and pray to large images, but they go away sorrowful. No answer comes. No miracle is wrought, and no change occurs. People torture themselves, walk through fire, cut themselves, and flog their own bodies until blood flows. Others stick pins and nails through their flesh. Still others crawl long distances on their knees until their legs become bruised and bloody, or they stare at the Sun for long periods without food and become blind and emaciated. Others still, dutifully and constantly attend lengthy religious ceremonies and rigorously recite elaborate prayers. But when it is all done, there still is no change, miracles, or lasting peace. Religion may reform, but it cannot save or transform. It cannot impart new life, a necessity for true salvation. There is no salvation in any religion regardless of what kind it is. In religion man is helplessly and hopelessly lost.
Distinctively different and apart from all the world's religions is Jesus Christ and His Gospel. Only Christ claimed to be the Eternal Almighty Omniscient God of Creation, and He alone bore the unique credentials in His person and work confirming such claims. Jesus the Christ is the absolute revelation of God to man.
Of interest is the fact that religious Vedas and sages of the east spoke of their own perception of the truth in different ways. The Buddha said his way "pointed to the way of the possible attainment of the truth," while the Mohammed said perhaps "the truth has been revealed to me," Much ambiguity and confusion remains in the world as to just what truth and religion really are, even to this day. Yet, Jesus Christ says, "I AM the Truth"! (John 14:6) "Jesus saith unto him, 1 am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father (God), but by me." The Gospel tells of the transcendent and per-sonal Creator, the one true God who uniquely became a man, yet fully God, and who, to as many as receive him, gives power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on His name.
There is an innate sense in each of us that something is very wrong in the world. We see the evidence of this problem in our own lives, in the lives of others, and in the world around us. It is the evidence of what the Bible calls "sin." Sin can be traced historically back to the first man, Adam, and his transgression. It has plagued all men ever since. Man was created perfect and in fellowship with God, but Satan came and tempted man so that he transgressed the Divine law, leading to his separation from God, the consequent curse, and his own misery. Man feels a sense of guilt and shame before God and he always tries to find a way to please God, hence all the different religions. Man's sin has blinded his way. The bad news is the fact we are all sinners and accountable to God and that there is a judgment coming to those without Jesus Christ. Man by nature is religious yet man by nature is not God-seeking. This is why the Gospel is so important to each one of us, it tells of Christ who is the way of eternal salvation. "To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation." (II Corinthians 5:19)
The Gospel in its classical meaning is found more than seventy-five times in the New Testament. The Gospel is the good news that God in Jesus Christ has fulfilled His promises to Israel, and that the way of salvation is opened to all who call on Him. "And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved." (Acts 2:21) When we believe on Jesus Christ, trusting Him in every area of our life, the dreadful wrong in each of us begins to be changed as the Word of God works in our hearts. Thus we start anew with God in Christ, realizing and enjoying a personal relationship with Him as "new creatures." (II Corinthians 5:17)
Men seek ways to "be right" with whoever they perceive God to be, yet they fail dismally never really knowing or understanding the God of the Bible, "Neither is there salvation in any other: For there is none other Name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved." (Acts 4:12) Throughout history multitudes have sought rightness with God in vain through religion. Of profound significance is the following stark contrast between religion and the Gospel:
There are people who believe that Buddha, Mohammed, or the spirit of "the gods" indwells their hearts, or even that "the Christ" is in their hearts, but "the heart is deceitful above all things." (Jeremiah 17:9) We can believe or feel many things that are not so. We know Jesus Christ lives, not because we "feel it" but because He rose from the grave by many infallible proofs according to Scripture. (1 Corinthians 15:3-4)
The historic event of the resurrection was contrary to scientific law and human experience, and this very fact proved to Jesus' disciples that their Lord was himself the Divine Lawgiver and Author of all human experience. All others, the founders and leaders of human religions, ancient or modern, are themselves subject to death, but He alone had triumphed over death through His resurrection, He alone lives.
There are many religions, but there is only one Gospel. Christ, and He alone, can save you.
A Christian is an odd lot. He feels supreme love for One he has never seen. lie talks familiarly every day to Someone lie cannot hear. He expects to go to heaven on the virtue of Another. lie empties himself in order to be full. He admits he is wrong so lie can be declared right. lie goes down in order to get up. He is strongest when he is weakest, richest when he is poorest, and happiest when lie feels the worst. He dies so he can live. lie forsakes in order to have. He gives away so lie can keep. He sees the invisible and hears the inaudible. He knows that which passes understanding. (A. W. Tozer)
Probably the greatest and strangest mystery of our day is that of the UFO phenomenon and related experiences. Certainly these effects rank among the greatest confrontations to our understanding. Nearly one million Americans now claim to have been abducted by aliens, and the numbers keep growing. Many millions of others claim to have seen a UFO. Nearly half of all Americans believe UFOs are real and that they represent "alien" spacecraft. It is clear that this phenomenon presents a serious problem in our culture demanding a sensible answer. It is this writer 5 contention that the answer must come from the Christian community, and that the ultimate truth of the matter must come, and can only come, from the Word of God, the Bible. Furthermore, it is this writer's contention that in all concerns and disciplines of life the Bible is the ultimate authority and fountainhead of knowledge over all matters, for God Himself is indeed the Creator of all things. Thus it is from this source that we are to build an understanding of the true nature of this UFO phenomenon. The prevalent world views held by modern science, astronomy, or politics, have not been able to provide the answer to this perplexing phenomenon because they are founded on a deficient presuppositional starting point.
For decades the UFO phenomenon has been the subject of extensive government control of information, suppression, and cover up. The only reason consistently issued for public consumption explaining the military's bewildering response to this UFO phenomenon is that it is in the interests of "national security" to withhold the details of such information from the people. One longstanding official involved with government studies of numerous UFO sightings offered this technical definition or description: "UFO phenomenon are to be found among reports of objects, lights, beings, or physical effects that are regarded by witnesses as anomalies because of their appearance or behavior." Thus, UFOs involve a diversity of phenomena and experience. Yet when confronted with a genuinely inexplicable invasion of our national air space by these anomalous objects the military throws up its hands and calls it "insufficient data."
If one were to peruse the historical record, evidence can be found of ancient sightings involving anomalous events and phenomena. These include accounts from Egyptian, Tibetan, Hindu, Greek, Roman and other traditions. Many of these, no doubt, are mythological, yet even with these there is a credible inference to historic fact. The nature and extent of such paranormal sightings is as diverse as in our own day although not particularly characteristic of the forms in which present day UFO's assume, such as flying disks, etc. Of the number of reports world wide, only about 5% are represented in the U. S., with a far greater number that go undocumented. The modern era of UFO sightings can be traced to World War II and the fireball "foo fighters" occasionally seen at the tails or wingtips of aircraft. In the United States, shortly after the end of the War, nine disk-shaped objects were seen, racing across the sky over Mt. Rainier in the state of Washington. This event, witnessed by Kenneth Arnold, a pilot, marked the advent of our own national experience. Arnold described these objects as appearing like "saucers" flying through the sky. When headline writers picked up the term "flying saucer" for their story it quickly spread around the world as a popular epithet for unidentified objects in the sky.
The Arnold sighting is usually considered the beginning of the modern UFO age for two reasons. First, because of Arnold's solid reputation and courage in reporting what he saw, many other UFO witnesses - previously afraid of ridicule - now came forward and told their own stories. Arnold's story was not the first reported sighting but his received the widest publicity. Secondly, the term "flying saucer" gave people a new peg upon which to hang something observed in the skies which previously had no category for adequate expression. Consequently when observers saw a strange object in the heavens, there was a name for it, a flying saucer. Furthermore, of interest is the fact that the term connoted an artificial or man-made piece of paraphernalia that was not only anomalous and bizarre, but possibly from another world. After all, a perfectly round, symmetrical or artificial object like a saucer simply could not have just blown in from nowhere and fly about by itself.
The June 1947 Arnold sightings were followed later that same year by perhaps the most famous of all early saucer events, namely the well documented flying saucer crash near Roswell, New Mexico, of which reams of literature have been generated. Since 1947 the UFO phenomenon has proliferated in a great diversity of anomalous and unexplained events. In recent years descriptions of "crop circles," "cattle mutilations," "missing time," "abductions," and other strange manifestations have accompanied the flying saucer phenomenon. Because of the ever widening diversity of objects reported in the sky the flying saucer term has, for the most part, been dropped in favor of UFO for "Unidentified Flying Object." There has been an exponential increase in the number of sightings during recent years.
Since the 1950's there has been a rise and proliferation of reports by people who not only claimed to have sighted a UFO but also who have been in some form of close contact, as "contactees," with their strange occupants. Much skepticism has accompanied these accounts, until recently. Because of the present day proliferation of these incidences many former skeptics are now convinced of their reality. There is now such an overburden of evidence for UFO's that the skeptics are left with the burden of proof to the contrary. Television and radio are rife with programs and features, book stores are stocking whole sections about the paranormal including alien stories, and motion pictures with bizarre alien themes are becoming increasing popular. Meanwhile, encounter groups and conventions dealing with the topic of UFO's and alien abductions are cropping up everywhere. It has become nothing less than a culture wide phenomenon. All of this has represented a "thorn" in the side of the government attempt to discredit the increasing volume of UFO reports. After decades of investigation the United States government has been unable to develop a firm consensus on the exact nature of the problem. The fact, as admitted by one former high ranking government expert, is that "The UFO phenomenon is the outstanding strange dilemma of our age. We don't know what they are."
The inability of even our own government to make a definitive diagnosis of the UFO and alien abduction phenomenon has led to a variety of hypothesis, although two interpretive models dominate as a public explanation:
1. The Natural Hypothesis: This theory explains UFO's as being produced by natural effects or man-made objects, such as unusual cloud formations, mirages, bright stars and planets, meteors, aircraft, weather balloons, and so on which are misidentified as UFO's. These types of things have represented the standard fare of explanations by the government, and skeptics.
2. The Extraterrestrial Hypothesis: This theory explains UFO's as representing actual vehicles of aliens from outer space conducting explorations of our world and experiments on its life forms. The UFO research community and now much of the general public accept this hypothesis.
3. The Biblical Hypothesis: It is becoming more and more evident that this hypothesis is the only theory which can stand under a close scrutiny of the data, the test of probability, and a proper Biblical exegesis. The Biblical perspective, as it already has been pointed out in this book and as it bears on the UFO phenomenon, has some very important implications for our day. The rest of the' present outline will examine the preceding two hypothesis and then explore this third option, considered from a Biblical perspective.
Even though the natural hypothesis, which offers a more or less naturalistic explanation of UFO phenomena, has long been the "official" solution, it is rife with very serious deficiencies. A telling example of this fact is represented by a documented account of a pilot, a survivor of many World War II missions, flying in pursuit of an enormous metallic object" moving at great speed and up to great heights. The object was fruitlessly chased by several other pilots as well. The war veteran died in a crash as a result of his pursuit. Sensing that the Air Force was withholding information and photographs of the tragedy and was trying to cover up the real story, the press printed some wild speculations concerning the affair. Pressed for an official explanation, the air Force lamely announced that the pilot had been pursuing the planet Venus, had lost consciousness at high altitude, and then perished in the crash of his plane.
The fallacy of this "official" explanation became clearly evident when it was pointed out that when the incident occurred, during broad daylight, Venus was so obscure that it would have required a careful search of the skies by an experienced observer to see it as a star-like point of light. It is to be remembered that the pilot saw a "metallic" appearing object of "tremendous" size. The Air force stayed with the Venus theory counting on the fact that most people do not pay much attention to such details. When confronted with this inconsistency, and other pertinent information, the Air Force finally changed their official pronouncement by "revealing" that a "secret high-altitude surveillance balloon happened to be in the area at the time and that it was the cause of the UFO sighting by the crashed pilot. As in most cases of this sort the public is fed deception while those close to the inside sources are forced, under duress, to silence. Other like examples, involving temperature inversions, light refractions, and bright planets are legion. Many can still remember the famous "swamp gas" explanation of the late 1960's following a rash of UFO sightings in the upper Midwest.
A comment or two regarding false reports and photographs may be in order at this point. Many false photographs of flying saucers have been made over the years using automobile hubcaps tossed into the air. Some of these actually have been difficult to disprove. Photographs of this nature have also included slightly out-of-focus images of cereal bowls, light fixtures, chicken brooders, vacuum cleaner parts and more. Some of these types of objects have even been deftly portrayed through window reflections to give them a convincing touch of aethereality. Many of these fake photographs have been very imaginative. There is something very important to be said about these images. It is to be remembered that often when something is faked, that in itself is an indication of an authentic counterpart. Originals often inspire the creation of impostures. For in most cases if it were not for the fact of an original there would no idea for the derivative imitation. This is an often overlooked element in the equation, the principle of imitative correspondence. This type of activity occurs in all the disciplines.
In spite of the recent extraordinary increase in popularity of the extraterrestrial hypothesis it was not very many years ago that proponents of this theory were most often regarded as "oddballs't and "quacks." No longer is this so. In fact so much has this theory gained in prominence that the natural hypothesis has been all but forgotten. Even though the extraterrestrial hypothesis has received much attention in television and radio programs, and support from the popular UFO research community, it is a model which, upon close scrutiny, reveals itself to be an inadequate and invalid interpretation as the following discussion will show.
Recently a number of well read journals, as well as the news media heralded the discovery of "new planets" beyond our solar system, around nearby stars. Most of these "discoveries" are discounted a short time later because of overzealous media attention and unsubstantiated observations. The few reports that continue to be maintained remain inconclusive for lack of better data. An incredibly slight "wobble" in a subject star, as if caused by the gravitational attraction of another body is explained as the "proof" for the existence of a nearby planet or planets. Yet, no direct observations have ever been made of such things. Furthermore the margin of error in the measurements is usually so great as to overwhelmingly negate the probability, pr possibility of such discoveries. When our own solar system is considered, which is much more available for observation than the distant stars, there is no discussion about the gravitational perturbations or "wobble" induced on the Sun by our own system's giant planet Jupiter.
In short, no such "planets" have been scientifically, let alone observationally, discovered, let alone, verified. This leads us to our consideration at hand, that of the narrow parameters needed for the supposed development of life of any kind "out there." It has become statistically evident that there is less than one chance in 100,000,000 that a planet exists in our galaxy capable of hosting the "evolution" of life, let alone that which could develop intergalactic travel. The present diversity of UFO "crafts" show little uniformity of appearance but manifest an incredible diversity of shapes and sizes. This is a fact difficult to harmonize with the extraterrestrial hypothesis. Are we talking about more than one planetary source for these crafts, and why are they here all at once? Furthermore such unexplained close encounters are so numerous as to betray an inefficient and poorly organized and poorly coordinated effort by a supposedly sophisticated scientific exploration and examination of our world by aliens from outer space with superior intelligence, a circumstance quite at conflict with itself.
The physical structure or appearance of the "observed" aliens is usually quite humanoid rather than "alien." This fact alone should stand out as a conspicuous coincidence and strange effect, considering the unique adaptations of life within an alleged evolutionary construct. Rather than weirdly imitating people why aren't the aliens more like "sludge" beasts, or giant intelligent amoebae, etc. Even though these manifestations may be expected given the evolutionary context in which they are assigned, what we see simply does not fit the evolutionary model. Even though believing in any model other than the extraterrestrial model is controversial many top researchers have abandoned the extraterrestrial hypothesis. Thus an important divergence occurs at this point in our analysis, and that in turn leads us to the consideration of our third hypothesis.
Even though the UFO phenomenon remains largely unexplained, it is by now solidly established as very credible and real, substantiated by a great number of reliable witnesses. Some researchers have now suggested that the UFO phenomenon is a "physical manifestation of an interdimensional paranormal consciousness that has the ability to manipulate human consciousness and perception, as well as matter and energy." Yet it is apparent, especially from discussions in Chapters 5, 6, and 7 of this book, that there is a much deeper, profound, and much more diabolical meaning to this phenomenon than in the suggestion just quoted. As it can be seen, it is quite evident that this phenomenon is an important aspect of what the Bible discloses as spiritual warfare. Factors that are difficult to harmonize with the extraterrestrial hypothesis but which support this third hypothesis are discussed in the following.
UFO's are characterized by their ability, given solid objects, to violate the known laws of physics when maneuvering in the atmosphere by executing sudden stops, sudden accelerations, sudden right angle turns, and hovering without a visible means of mechanical propulsion. They disappear, reappear, disintegrate, reintegrate, merge together, or fuse with other objects. In short, unless they are the products of some exotic secret government technological breakthrough, they seem to represent an intervention by unseen or supernatural powers who can manipulate or transcend the "laws of nature." These paranormal attributes seem to correspond to those of angelic beings, particularly fallen angels, or demonic agents, whose abilities to effect physical reality are already established.
"Contactees" or "abductees" often now report of being involuntarily taken or "kidnapped" by aliens and subjected to examinations, experiments, and surgical procedures often of a sexual or reproductive nature, having sperm or ovum removed. Close to one million Americans alone, claim to have had this experience. Many if not all of these cases involve details which are decidedly anti-Christian, unbiblical, and decidedly evil. The UFO apparitions are being witnessed and experienced by many people over wide areas. They are now highly credible, appear to be physical objects, and appear intelligent in themselves or controlled by some mysterious intelligence. Previously, those in authority had imposed a secrecy on all inside aeronautical specialists in the name of national security.
Now the concern is not only that of national security but national panic as well. Because the UFO effect is becoming so rampant in our time the days are numbered wherein collaborators within the governing will be able to keep the matter suppressed. Even now, the "cream" of the crop of respectable personalities, our "most credible" national heroes, the astronauts, are coming forward to say that they too believe we are being visited by aliens from outer space. The "visitors" are not, although, what they are thought to be. A systematic and sensible hypothesis based on certainty will continue to evade the authorities and their collaborators because in their own wisdom they reject the wisdom of the Almighty in His grand revelation, the Holy Scriptures of old. God knows, and has revealed in His Word what kind of horrible invaders are again visiting our world in mass, not unlike their close counterparts did in the days of Noah, prior to the great Flood. "Where is the wise? where is the scribe? where is the disputer of this world? hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?" (I Corinthians 1:20)
Thus, through even this simple process of elimination, we are able to sensibly arrive at this most viable third hypothesis, which, as it turns out, can be concluded from not only a systematic and sensible analysis of the raw data, but through the systematic examination of the Scripture itself. The UFO's represent intelligence, their occupants have been involved with humanity since the beginning by assuming varied forms throughout history, they do not originate from advanced civilizations in outer space, and these entities appear to want to give the impression of an extraterrestrial origin. The intelligence behind most of the UFO phenomenon can be described as deceptive, detrimental to mankind and decidedly anti-Christian. These agents of evil never had any legitimate business being here in the first place. All of these factors strongly correspond with the warnings issued in the Bible against those "principalities, powers, and rulers of the darkness of this world, spiritual wickedness in high places" (Ephesians 6:12) "who left their first estate." Against these our only answer, recourse, and sanctuary, is God's Holy Word.
Is it a myth, is it a legend, or is it a hoax? Whatever the creature is, scores of reports have been coming forth from many places around the world since initial descriptions last year of a mysterious creature ravaging the countryside on the island of Puerto Rico killing small animals and making local rural dwellers and farmers uneasy. As big of a news story as this is, oddly enough one will not hear details about it from Tom Brokaw or Rush Limbaugh. Almost all of the accounts about the Chupacabra have come either through the variety of specialty programs on cable television dealing with the paranormal and a few local radio and newspaper reports, or through the Internet. Where ever it is being covered although it has indeed become 'tbig time." Mysteriously enough, however, in spite of its newsworthyness and journalistic potential, the "mainstream," clearly has not exhibited much effort to cover this unique phenomenon.
The big question everyone has been asking is, just what is the Chupacabra and why its sudden rabid appearance? One fact seems consistent; the creature strikes at night and has a thirst for blood. Initially the creature was known for stalking small animals, namely goats, on farms in Puerto Rico, hence the name Chupacabra, which, in Spanish, means "goat sucker." The earliest accounts of the recent outbreak, which apparently began in 1995, included details of attacks where goats were found dead, with their blood drained, apparently through peculiar puncture wounds on their necks. There have been some reports of particular organs missing from some of the victim's bodies, without any visible way for those organs to have been removed. Since initial attacks owners of animals say hundreds of chickens, rabbits, sheep, cats and dogs, and even larger animals including pigs and cattle have died in a similar manner, even when "secured" inside locked cages that seemed undisturbed. Sightings have increased with the passing months, fueling paranoia and fear.
Most witnesses of the creature, or its effects, have described it as a half-man, half-beast vampire like predator that roams the countryside terrorizing farm animals, and, indirectly, people. A description of the creature based on the fairly consistent reports by observers provides us with the following composite: "The Chupacabra stands about four or five feet tall, is grayish in color with skin like that of a dinosaur, and spikes from the top of its head down its back, although there is no tail. It has a web-like film hanging beneath short pudgy forelegs, or arms, that end in claws, and large powerful hind legs. Ugly as a demon, it has huge bright red eyes the size of hens eggs, long fangs, and an odd long slimy pointy tongue which continually glides in and out of its mouth." This thing exhibits intelligent behavior and possesses the ability to evade detection and capture at will Thus instances of close contact with people, so far, have been few. It is thought to dwell underneath the soil in cave-like structures, the origins and nature of which remain mysterious and obscure. The monster is also described as having wings and, in one account, "flew at two human subjects who fled for their lives." The creature reportedly "hops around like a kangaroo and exudes such a pungent sulfur-like stench that one close encounter left an individual coughing for days. It should be noted that there is nothing that would negate a variation of manifestations in the Chupacabra entity.
Reactions to this recent phenomenon have varied considerably, from the resolute insistence of those who say they have actually seen the Chupacabra first hand, to skeptics and reporters in the media who discount these accounts by writing and publishing falsifying and ridiculing stories against these people and their reports. It seems that some have found the human aspect of the Chupacabra phenomenon even more interesting than the creature itself saying that even though this creature is fast it can never catch up with the folklore, rumors, and hoaxes that seem to rush out ahead of it. Thus Chupacabras have both alarmed and amused residents in such widely scattered places as Mexico, South America, Florida, Texas, Southern California, and even Oregon, to the point of inspiring theories, satire, mugs, T-shirts, and rap songs. Regarded as a phenomenon as strange and mysterious as cattle mutilations, crop circles, UFO's, and alien abductions, the Chupacabra enigma baffles authorities, especially in light of the accounts the phenomenon has elicited. Because of the Chupacabra organized parties which have gone capture the creature, have met with limited success little except for the dead animal victims albeit with after which individuals in these groups usually lose or knitting until the next inexplicable attack occurs. veterinarians who have followed the "official line" irrefutable widespread popular the skillfully elusive nature of out to search, photograph, or and have been able to produce their strange puncture wounds, interest and go back to fishing Most government officials and or policy statements, and who have refused to reveal autopsy data about the dead animals, often relegate the reports to hysteria and mischief. Some, although, have honestly conceded that they are up against something which appears to be very real yet difficult to define rationally. There are, however, a few prudent individuals who are taking the matter quite seriously. The mayor of one Puerto Rican town of 40,000 people has been paying close attention, especially since some of his constituents have lost animals. In his jurisdiction there is nothing humorous about the situation because of the widespread concern that people could be next.
Some of the theories raised to explain the Chupacabra include the idea that they represent the appearance of "living fossils," in other words prehistoric dinosaurian-like animals which were thought to have been long extinct but actually existing undisturbed and unnoticed in some remote or inaccessible area until modern times, and which have now migrated into populated areas for the first time. Some have suggested that the Chupacabra is a human-reptile-insect hybrid product of a highly sophisticated top secret genetic manipulation project gone awry. Another popular idea is that they are alien in origin, that is, creatures from outer space which are presently initiating a world wide mass invasion of earth. A more sensible explanation which draws from a purely Biblical interpretation, suggests that these creatures are decidedly demonic in their origins. One strong evidence of this possibility is their uncanny ability to come and go in and out (5f our physical world virtually undetected. This is indeed a power repeatedly demonstrated by angelic beings as recorded in the Biblical record. In other words the Chupacabra evidence themselves to be interdimensional beings which can easily evade detection by their ability to enter into and appear or exit out of and vanish from physical reality in an instant. Thus, in the Biblical context, the Chupacabra represent the apparitions of transdimensional entities, or fallen angels, or, more specifically, demons.
There is also evidence that this odd manifestation of paranormal activity in our era is not unique in history. There are recorded incidences in ancient times and in medieval days, as well, of strange occurrences involving half-man half-beast like creatures ravaging the countryside at night. For the Bible student this should come as no surprise since Satan and his legions, which occupy the air in vast numbers, have supernaturally effected such diabolical invasions into human affairs ever since Adam and Eve were tempted in Eden by the apparition of Lucifer as a serpent. Much of these traditions have been memorialized in the literature and the arts through the ages, right up to our modern time. For instance, a close inspection of some of the architecture during a walk through one of the larger metropolitan districts will reveal a wealth of peculiar ornamentation embedded in the sides and roof lines of buildings. These likenesses characterized in the gargoyles and other masonry entities of ornamented buildings inescapably suggest the reality of strange and bizarre creatures of another time, if not our own.
Many are stone likenesses that seem to sneer, grin, and snarl. They instill a sense of horror that may not necessarily be precisely physical or mental. Since these things are almost always above human sight lines, and because people in the cities rarely look up they are virtually unnoticed. We don't see these "architectural demons" but they "see" us as they constantly stare down at us with their evil stone faced countenances. Unless we are a conscientious churchgoer with some innate sense of their ultimate meaning we go on about our busy lives not giving a thought to the fact they are actually there. This seems most significant, being a parallel to the reality of which the Bible speaks, and that is that our own finite world is infested with powerful invisible principalities which seek our ruin (Ephesians 6:12. Our head does not know much about these creatures but our nerves do once we notice them and learn of their historical significance. So should it be when we see what Holy Writ reveals about our great mortal and immortal enemy. Many of these building details depict grotesque and frightening creatures who patient origin could be none other than the sulfurous bowels of hell itself. These features have been present in the architecture of various civilizations since ancient times.
When we encounter the word gargoyle we intuitively envision monsters, goblins, and other obscure terrors, and rightly so for the practical origins of the device is just so. The word gargoyle itself which has Latin roots means "drain" or "gutter" or "gullet" for routing rainwater from a roof. Hence on some buildings drainpipes become gargoyles, those hideous faces of fury spitting dirty water out of fanged jaws. So also does Satan and his cohorts, insane with rage, issue forth filth upon our broken world. The word gargle, which we do when we have a sore throat, has a similar etymology. Interesting enough, the term gargoyle is often incorrectly used in reference to all sculptures of grotesque beasts on buildings with medieval style motifs. When not used for drains, such creatures are more properly called Chimeras. For one who is aware of the life force tradition behind these strange figures which is strong enough to carry over into their usage as architectural motifs the question become more practical: What is the interpretation and my response to them? The answer depends upon the individual. The Bible believer realizes that these images have far reaching implications dealing not only with the immoral but the immortal of which the world at large is unaware. Most simply put, these things represent entities which seek to deceive and destroy our immortal souls if not our physical bodies. Like the world wide traditions of mythological figures, a great Flood, and dragons, all of which have been confirmed in the Biblical record, the Gargoyles and chimera just as well have a sound basis in historical fact.
All of this brings us back to the Chupacabra. It now seems sensibly apparent that this is yet another creature with a strong basis in historical fact and which has made a strong impression upon the human conscientiousness. In other words, the "Chupacabras" as reflected in the cultural traditions world wide as manifested in their building ornamentations have evidently been here before and are arriving again in greater numbers, and perhaps as only a small part of the greater agenda of events prior to the last days.
Perhaps the biggest reason the Chupacabra phenomenon is so incredible to most in our present day is that it is incompatible with our modern western rationalistic thinking. If any thing is not "scientifically possible" it is disregarded. By and large twentieth century man interprets reality psychologically and rationally but not theologically. Even among those who proclaim themselves as believers in God, they reject the supernatural beyond that basic tenant. Yet the supernatural, of which the Chupacabra phenomenon appears to be but one minor element, and a supernatural aspect of angelology which is an integral part of the economy of divine revelation, is outright rejected. Just as well, the reality of the busy legions of angels, fixed and fallen, active in our world is similarly rejected. The question that should be asked of such folks is this: If one believes in God at all, why is belief in any of this, the lesser matters, such problem? Even though the Word of God came out of eastern culture and prospered in the western world, it is neither eastern or western, it is Biblical and Christian. Today most Roman Catholics, Protestants, and Evangelicals are thinking "western," not Biblical. It is not good enough to believe in the Bible, it must be understood. Today there is too much isogesis (the reader's own notion) often instilled by the "party line" of the particular "fathers" he has been trained and versed in, rather than good exogesis (God's notion) which comes from a sensible and right division of the patent intent of Scripture. Otherwise a truly Biblical theology of demons is misunderstood. I should be remembered that Satan came to our first parents metamorphosed in the form of a serpent (Genesis 3:1-7).
In the days of Noah Satan's agents breached their own realm and committed unlawful acts with human women (Genesis 6:1-4) producing offspring heinous, if not more so, as the Chupacabra is purported to be. In Pharaoh's court Satan again demonstrated a clear interference with and a paranormal manipulation of physical reality in the imitations of Moses' miracles. It clearly is thus evident that demons have the ability to alter material reality and influence the behavior of their victims, and make physical appearances, even though they themselves by nature are incorporeal. Again, that fallen angels have assumed physical bodies and have interbred with humans and spawned grotesque beasts, as clearly indicated in Scripture, is a fact outright rejected by many theologians who have been heavily influenced by the rationalists. For Satan himself, the master of deception, masquerades as an angel of light (II Corinthians 11:14. When witnesses talk about cattle mutilations, crop circles, UFO's, alien abductions, and Chupacabras it is most likely that they are reflecting on not just their imagination or the reality of tradition but on historical reality. Twentieth century man has a distorted view of the supernatural realm of Biblical revelation, and until this deficiency in his thinking is rectified he is going to believe a completely erroneous interpretation of such strategic events of our time.
"And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit. And he opened the bottomless pit, and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace,. and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit. And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth: and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power." (Revelation 9.1-3)
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Aerolite. A meteorite made of stone. The great "hailstones" which the Lord rained down on the armies of the five kings of the Amorites who went against Gibeon (Joshua 10:11) may have been aerolites.
Asteroid. A rocky or metallic interplanetary body, usually a member of the minor planet swarm orbiting the Sun at approximately 2.8 A.U. Asteroids, are considered to be bodies larger than about 300 feet in diameter. Hence anything smaller is considered a meteoroid. Asteroids are also known as planetoids, minor planets, or "pocket planets. The "great mountain burning with fire" which was "cast into the sea" (Revelation 8:8) is likely an asteroid.
Astrology. One of the "occupational hazards" of being an astronomer, to be mistaken for an astrologer. Astrology is not part of modern astronomy, but a pseudo-science associated with astronomy as it was practiced some 3,000 years ago. Astrology portends to assign influences on people and events on Earth, by the celestial bodies, namely the Sun, Moon, and planets, relative to the stars, or constellations, through which these objects appear to move from year to year. Astrology is included among the abominable divinations condemned by God (Deuteronomy 4:19, 18:9-13). Even today millions read daily horoscopes and govern their lives by the position of the planets. All such who do so are partners of those who "burn incense to Baal" (II Kings 23:5). All those who seek guidance by such means are in rebellion against the true God (II Kings 1:6). The Bible tells us that astrology is totally false and powerless (Daniel 2:27), and must be avoided by the believer.
Astronomy. The observation and study of the physical heaven above the Earth's atmosphere. It involves the spatial, material, and temporal universe, and deals specifically with the Sun, Moon, stars, planets, comets, meteors, their movements, and the invisible realms of the cosmos. Astronomy, inherently, "declares the glory of God" (Psalm 19:1).
Astronomical unit (A.U.). The mean distance between the Earth and Sun, 93,000,000 miles.
Brontosaurus. A huge extinct North American sauropod dinosaur which had a long slender neck, small head, and a thick tapering tail. The name of Brontosaurus has more recently been replaced by "Apatosaurus." The large creature mentioned in the Old Testament (Job 40:15-24) was, very likely, a Brontosaurus-like creature.
Chupacabra. An intelligent, elusive, and highly anomalous vampire-like hybrid creature that has been reportedly rampaging through the island of Puerto Rico and, more recently, other places around the globe. The word Chupacabra is Spanish for "goat sucker" after the first animal victims of the monster.
Cosmos. The universe, or all of creation, including the Earth, considered as a harmonious and orderly system, Greek Kosmos.
Disruption theory. The hypothesis that the asteroid belt is the result of the destruction of a planet which originally occupied their present realm, also called explosion theory.
Evolution. The supposed development of a species, organism, or organ from its original or rudimentary state to its present or completed state, as a species, through mutation. The belief that man descended from an ape-like creature which, in turn, ultimately "evolved" from a "primal soup" nearly a billion years ago. Even though the concept has existed in the minds of men in one form or another over the millennia, it was Charles Darwin (1809-1882) who originated the theory of evolution by natural selection and popularized it through his book On the Origin of Species, published in 1859.
Geocentricity. The belief that the Earth is fixed in space at the center of the universe, with the heavenly bodies moving around it daily and annually.
Godhead. The Holy Trinity. (see Trinity)
Gospel. The "good news" that Christ came into the world to save the lost through the substitutionary sacrifice of Himself. The joyous proclamation of God's redemptive activity in Jesus Christ on behalf of man enslaved by sin.
Heliocentrism. The belief that the Sun is fixed at the center of the universe, instead of the Earth, with the Earth and planets moving around it. More recently, acentrism ("no center") has been the more "technically correct" usage.
Intellect-emotion-will. Considered to be the tripartite elements of the human soul.
Kosmos. Greek for cosmos.
Mascon. Mass concentrations of meteoritic material, likely iron-nickel, buried under the maria of the Moon. They were discovered when orbiting space craft experienced irregularities, or perturbations, in their orbital path as they circled the Moon.
Mesosiderites. Meteorites displaying irregular grains of nickel-iron embedded in a stony matrix.
Meteor. The light phenomenon observed from Earth when a meteoroid, a rocky or metallic fragment, arrives from space and encounters the upper atmosphere at cosmic velocity thereby burning itself up as a result of friction during its passage through the atmosphere. Most meteoroids do not survive the meteor stage to reach the Earth as a meteorite.
Meteorite. The collectable specimen found on Earth as a result of a meteoroid which survives its meteoric passage through the atmosphere.
Meteoroid. A piece of rocky or metallic debris drifting through interplanetary space. If it reaches Earth and collides with the atmosphere it heats to incandescence and becomes visible as a meteor. If it survives the passage through the atmosphere and leaves a collectable specimen on, or in, the soil, that specimen is called a meteorite.
Minor planet. (see Asteroid)
Nebular hypothesis. Also, accretion theory. The theory that the Sun and planets of the solar system formed, or accreted, out of a rotating, coalescing, and flattened cloud of dust and gas. Usually no explanation is given for the origin of the nebula. The theory, which has not changed much in the more than two centuries since it was first proposed by Immanuel Kant and Marquis Laplace in the eighteenth century.
Nephalim. "Fallen one." A giant offspring from an unlawful union between a fallen angel, or demon, and a human. Goliath (I Samuel 17:49-51 was one of the Nephalim who was slain by David.
"Oort" cloud. A supposed reservoir, or "cloud," of "refrigerated" comet nuclei orbiting the Sun at a distance half way to the stars. When a comet is perturbed, perhaps by a passing star, it is deflected, supposedly toward the solar system, where it is further perturbed by giant Jupiter and forced into a smaller orbit where the comet eventually "dies" as its volatile material is ablated, or "burned" off by the Sun's heat through successive perihelion encounters. The Oort cloud represents an attempt to "replenish" the number of short period comets to lend credibility to a "very old" universe. Otherwise comets evidence a very young universe, in line with Biblical reasoning.
Oreon. A hypothetical planet beyond Neptune.
Organic molecule. Complex molecules associated with life on Earth, including alcohol and amino acids. Ouranos. An archaic term for "heaven" or "starry firmament.
Pallasite. A meteorite composed of metal and peridotite, or olivine, crystals. When a pallasite is cut in cross section and polished it shows a shiny network of nickel-iron with the meshes filled with crystals of olivine.
Planet. "Wandering star" (Greek). The major orbiting members of the solar system are the planets.
Planetoid. (see asteroid)
Plesiosaur. A large, supposedly extinct, marine animal that lived during the age of the dinosaurs. One such creature was snagged in a fishing net off the coast of New Zealand in 1977. The creature was in a decayed condition having died not more than perhaps a month earlier.
Prayer. The natural, real, and intimate communion between God and his people. Prayer may be corporate as well as individual. Prayer includes praise, adoration, thanksgiving, petition, intercession, and other functions. Paul wrote a good summary on prayer (I Timothy 2:1-8).
Relativity. In physics, the principle, or theory, of the relative rather than the absolute character of motion, velocity, mass, etc., and the interdependence of matter, time, and space, as developed and mathematically formulated by Albert Einstein and H. A. Lorentz. In philosophy, it is existence only in relation to the thinking mind. Most of the concept of relativity falls into the trap of substituting mathematics for reality, and being so complex and difficult to test, that its students fall into confusion.
Sethite view. An interpretation promulgated by C. I. Scofield that the sons of God (Genesis 6:14) were not angels, but godly descendants of Seth. The Sethite view is accompanied by certain exegetical problems, among which is; why the unions between godly and ungodly lines produced physical giants, and why, if the Sethites were so godly, they married the ungodly Cainites.
Siderite. A meteorite consisting of solid nickel-iron. When these are cleaned, or cut, and polished the metal shines brightly.
Sideralite. A meteorite consisting of both stone and iron-nickel.
"Sons of God." Beings, who are a direct creation of God, the angels. Adam, who was not a "derivative" creature through birth as is the rest of humanity, was a "son of God" (Luke 3:38). Every human being born of the womb is a "son of Adam" (Genesis 5:3; Luke 3:38).
Space-matter-time. The three primary and most fundamental elements of creation. The "tri-unity" of creation is reflective of the Triune God, in that they are mutually exclusive, yet collectively exhaustive and of the same essence that is, they are creation, just as the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are God.
Terminus. A hypothetical planet beyond Neptune and hypothetical Oreon.
T-Rex. A shortened version of the term for Tyrannosaurus Rex, a huge two-footed flesh eating (?) extinct North American theropod dinosaur.
Triceratops. The largest of the ceratopsian dinosaurs, Triceratops had three horns protruding from its head.
Trinity. The Godhead; Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Parallel to man's responsibility (Philippians 2:12) and securing his obedience is God's grace (Ephesians 3:20). All three persons of the Trinity are active in sanctifying true believers - the Father (Ephesians 1:4) who calls the Saints; the Son (Hebrews 2:9-11) who executes their salvation; and the Holy Spirit (Romans 15:16) who sanctifies them, setting them apart. All three are real persons and all three are equally, fully, and eternally God. Each is necessary, and each is distinct, and yet all are one. The Father is the unseen, omnipresent Source of all being, revealed in and by the Son, experienced in and by the Holy Spirit. The Son proceeds from the Father, and the Spirit from the Son. With reference to the Triune God's creation the Father is the thought behind it, the Son is the Word calling it forth, and the Spirit is the Deed making it a reality. We "see" God and His great salvation in the Son of God, the Lord Jesus Christ, then "experience" their reality by faith, through the indwelling presence of His Holy Spirit. Though these relationships seem paradoxical, and to some completely impossible, they are profoundly realistic, and their truth is ingrained deep in man's nature. Thus, men have always sensed first the truth that God must be "out there," everywhere present and the first, behind all things. Since his fall, Man has corrupted this intuitive knowledge into pantheism and ultimately into naturalism. Similarly, man has always felt the need to "see" God in terms of his own experience and understanding, but this knowledge that God must reveal Himself has been distorted into polytheism and idolatry. Men have thus continually erected "models" of God, sometimes in the form of graven images, sometimes in the form of supposed written descriptions and false scriptures, and sometimes even in the form of philosophical systems purporting to represent ultimate reality. Finally, men have always known that they should be able to have communion with their Creator and to experience His presence "within," because the truth of God's tri-unity is ingrained in man's very nature. No man could recognize and receive Christ through the witness of creation unless the Holy Spirit so draws him that, through a heart made open and willing, he is able to see and believe. For if such a preparation of heart by the Spirit is necessary before a man will receive the Lord, even though revealed through the far brighter side of the Scriptures, far more essential must it be if he is to see and believe the much fainter light diffused through the creation. Nevertheless, the light is surely there, for those who really desire to see and know their God.
UFO. Phenomenon found among reports of aerial objects, lights, beings, or physical effects that are regarded by witnesses as anomalies because of their peculiar behavior. Included in these are the infamous "flying saucers."
Uniformitarianism. The doctrine that all geological phenomenon, may be explained as resulting from observable processes in a uniform way over vast periods of time. The concept of uniformitarianism, which is mentioned in the Bible, is not new (II Peter 3:4).
Vulcan. A hypothetical intra-Mercurian planet proposed through a flurry of speculations circulated among world class astronomers during the nineteenth century.
Zodiacal light. A faint cone of light extending above the horizon and in a direction away from the Sun, visible under ideal observing conditions before sunrise or after sunset. The appearance of the zodiacal light is due to the presence of tiny particles, or dust, scattered within the inner solar system along or near the plane of the ecliptic, also called interplanetary dust.
Copyright © 1995, 1996. All Rights Reserved. Published by RUHE COMPANY, P.O. Box 1034, Rocklin, California 95677-1034. No portion of this book may be reproduced in any form whatsoever without written permission from the publisher. Internet edition, January 17, .1997
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