Q.1: The question that puzzles me IS the ‘luminiferous ether’ (1) zero point energy or the (2) plasma between objects in space. Plasma enables the transmission of light and electricity. But is the ether only that? Does ZPE constitute the ether too?
Q.2: Dealing with the Michelson-Morley experiments, among other things, and I want to nail this down. I suspect it is both. Plasma is layer one, and beneath it is zero-point energy.
Am I right? (Of course, it is likely more complex than I make it out to be!).
Q.3: You speak of ZPE, and the EU guys don’t talk about it at all, that I can see.
I await wisdom from my master mentor!
Q.4: Oh, a couple of other wonderments from my brain: Does ZPE impact the speed of objects like planets moving through space?
Q.5: When the universe was created, and ZPE enabled light to travel 3 billion times faster, why didn’t Earth and the planets travel much faster too?
Q.1: Thanks for the questions! It is apparent that you have been listening to the EU guys and others! Therefore, let me deal with plasma first. Plasma is matter dissociated into its component particles, namely electrons and protons (even neutrons dissociate into a proton and an electron). Therefore, since an electric current is a movement of electrons in one direction, and/or a movement of protons in the opposite direction, then plasma is actually a source of electric current. If a voltage differential exists anywhere in a plasma, or anywhere that ions or electrons are present, no matter how sparse their distribution, then an electric current will flow as the particles move. So it is definitely true that plasma “enables the transmission of electricity.”
The second item of your question does not follow from the first. Because plasma and electric currents are part of the same system, it does not necessarily mean that light has a similar standing. Let me note some problems with plasma being the universal medium transmitting light. First, in a plasma, the individual particles (electrons and protons) are each wandering on their own. These particles reflect, scatter and bounce the light photons back and forth so the photon becomes trapped in the plasma fog and very little light escapes. The situation is similar to driving in a fog where the point particles reflect, scatter and bounce the headlight photons such that they do not penetrate very far.
Second, the plasma we find in filaments in space does several things. They can cause lensing of a distant object so it appears magnified, or as multiple images. This is sometimes attributed to strong gravitational effects, but plasma filaments do this quite easily by “bending” the light rays. In addition, there are refraction effects from the bending causing rainbow-like fringes to some objects, not necessarily to the magnified images alone. Finally, the distribution of plasma throughout the cosmos is concentrated in huge filaments surrounded by massive voids without anything in them at all.
When we put these experimental data together, it becomes apparent that plasma is not the universal “luminiferous ether” that transmits light and radiation through space. If plasma were the aether, instead of having to search for such objects, we would find them intruding on our vision everywhere, the sky would look a rather messy place. Further, the distribution of plasma filaments and voids makes plasma a less than ideal “aether”. The speed of light would vary incredibly with the varying density of the plasma in different locations. The speed of photons through the immense voids would be much faster than through the denser filaments.
In addition, recent experiments have shown that very distant galaxies are amazingly crisp and clear. This would not happen with the uneven distribution of plasma since each change in plasma density would result in a bending and distortion of the original image. If the plasma was ubiquitous as a light carrying medium, the images would be fuzzy. The reason is that every change in Lightspeed as it went through a denser plasma and then a more rarefied region distorts or blurs the image. The effect is cumulative and images and spectral lines broaden and blur. Instead, even the most distant objects are crisp and sharp. Thus very distant objects should have a degree of fuzziness which can be calculated. The level at which all these effects would have been visible would be obvious if plasma was the “aether.”
Q.1 Part 2:
The other part of this question is related to the action of the ZPE and a possible link to the “luminiferous aether.” Because of its origin with the expansion of the fabric of space and hence the universe, the ZPE is uniform throughout the cosmos in a way that plasma never could be. Let me explain briefly. The fabric of space may be considered to be made up of a “weave” of extra dimensions rolled up into ball-like Calabi-Yau shapes, as shown here:
When the cosmos was first created, these shapes were very close together. Then as the Lord expanded out the heavens, these shapes became farther and farther apart. This stretching process put an energy into the fabric of space in the same way that inflating a balloon invested energy into the balloon’s fabric. This energy appeared as the ZPE. Importantly, it has been shown that these shapes are separated by a distance corresponding to Planck’s constant, h; it is called the Planck Length and is 1.61 x 10^-33 cm. Space has been shown experimentally to be smooth down to a level of 10^13.2 times greater than that size.
Thus, as the stretching went on, and the shapes got farther apart, the value of h increased. It is important to note that SED physics holds that h is also a measure of the strength of the ZPE. The two physical quantities are therefore related in SED physics. This process in the very fabric of the cosmos resulted in an all-pervasive ZPE having a strength that was the same at any given moment right throughout the universe. Thus the ZPE satisfies this requirement for the aether in a way that plasma does not.
Any variation in the ZPE strength comes with concentrations of matter such as stars and planets. Because the charged particles in matter undergo a jitter-motion from the impacting waves of the ZPE, this causes them to emit secondary radiation which locally boosts the strength of the all-pervasive ZPE. It is for this reason that light bends around massive objects.
As the 1962 realization of the importance of the ZPE took hold, it was announced by some in the field that the ZPE “was an ether without an ether.” The reason was that the ZPE could be shown to accomplish all that the old idea of an aether was meant to, but its actual physical characteristics were very different. The ZPE was indeed a light-carrying medium which was all-pervasive throughout the cosmos. From experiment, we know that it has an unusual frequency-cubed spectral distribution. This property in practice means that it is impossible to detect motion (that is velocity) through the ether of the ZPE. Later Davies and Unruh demonstrated mathematically that acceleration through the ZPE ether could theoretically be detected, but only if it was of the order of 10^21 g’s or higher.
Another feature of the ZPE is that it facilitates the formation of virtual particle pairs in the vacuum which act to govern the speed of light. On the 16th January, 2013, Marcel Urban, Research Director, University of Paris published an article in the European Physical Journal D, which showed that the known speed of light resulted from the interaction of photons with the known density of virtual particle pairs in the vacuum. Later this was verified in a way that is controversial, Special cameras can take images at 10 trillion frames per second. Using this camera on 27th March, 2019 to photograph a pulse of light going through a bottle it was found that the progression of the photon went in a series of jerks between pauses. It seems that they had photographed the photon’s interaction with virtual particles.
Q.2: The Michelson-Morley Experiments.
The first thing to note is that, for the old, classical ether, it was expected that this ether was stationary uniformly throughout the universe, and would therefore provide an absolute rest-frame. Einstein did away with that idea by his theory of Relativity where one of his two basic postulates was that there was no absolute rest-frame anywhere in the universe. That postulate has since been proven wrong by the fact that the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) does provide that universal rest frame. The motion of our solar system around the Galaxy, the motion of our Galaxy in the Local Group, and the motion of our Local Group towards the Virgo super cluster can be determined individually in speed and direction, from the CMBR.
However, the point I am coming to is this. If the all-pervasive “aether” was uniformly stationary, then we knew that the earth’s motion around the sun should have a significant value; a value which can be cross-checked 6 months later when it is traveling in the opposite direction. The original outcome from that experiment, while not zero, was a value which some scientists felt was within the range of experimental error for a potentially zero result. Because many felt this showed the ether did not exist, Einstein had some impetus to go ahead with his theory. However, as we said, the basis for this was entirely wrong.
Nevertheless, the ZPE has a very logical solution to this whole set of results. It is true that motion through the ZPE cannot be detected because of the frequency distribution of the ZPE waves, in a way explained in more detail in our Monograph on pages 261-262. However, there is a second point which is applicable here. Remember that planets, stars, asteroids and astronomical bodies generally, are made up of particles which are being jiggled by the ZPE. This jiggling causes an acceleration of the particle as it is battered back and forth randomly at 10^21 times a second. A charged particle undergoing acceleration emits radiation, which locally boosts the strength of the ZPE. This local field of the (augmented) ZPE has no motion with respect to the earth’s center of mass since it originates with the presence of the earth’s mass. Thus the Michelson-Morley will show no fringe shifts and so no velocity will be recorded.
However, the earth does rotate with respect to respect to its augmented ZPE. This motion does produce fringe shifts known as the Sagnac Effect that were first seen in 1913 when a rotating platform was used for the experiment. It was replicated in the Michelson-Gale experiment of 1925 using the earth’s own rotation. The ZPE explanation is thus shown to be a far simpler explanation of the observational results than the complications of Special Relativity.
Q.3: The ZPE and the EU group.
You are correct that the EU folk do not mention the ZPE. They do not treat kindly anything which challenges the model of Wal Thornhill for the ether or light-carrying medium. Wal has studiously avoided many quantum effects and their causes. Because there is a (corrupt) form of ZPE in QED physics, Wal has been suspicious of anything like that. Furthermore, he despises the concept of virtual particles, and because both QED and SED physics has virtual particles associated with both forms of the ZPE, he will not accept these concepts under any circumstances. As a result, none of his adherents mention it either, if they indeed know about it.
Wal proposes that neutrinos form the light-carrying-medium that makes up the aether. He writes:
Others and I have argued that a plenum of neutrinos forms the aether. Based upon nuclear experiments, I have also proposed that neutrinos are the most collapsed, lowest energy state of matter. In other words they exhibit vanishingly small mass. However, being normal matter composed of subtrons, they are capable of forming electric dipoles. In an oscillating electromagnetic field a neutrino must rotate through 360˚ per cycle. That would link the speed of light in a vacuum to the moment of inertia of a neutrino. Having some mass, neutrinos must be ‘dragged along’ by gravitating bodies. They form a kind of extended ‘atmosphere’ which will bend light. It has nothing to do with a metaphysical ‘warping of space.’
I pointed out that if the aether is composed of a plenum or sea of neutrinos, then motion through the aether might be detectable… unless there was a frequency cubed energy distribution for the particles or that the neutrinos had an origin internal to the earth which would account for the Sagnac effect. This was not welcome information. It follows a similar pattern with other plasma-related topics and discussions with individuals. As a result I am not usually mentioned in EU communications, if at all.
Q.4: ZPE and the speed of planets:
There are physical effects of the ZPE. You were asking if the speed of planets in orbit were affected. Let us start simply. The virtual particles produced by the ZPE have been shown to produce a drag on spinning particulate matter in the vacuum – even up to the size of a grain of dust. More generally, both QED and SED approaches show that the waves and/or virtual particles create a friction as they collide with spinning matter. The effect is greater for smaller, lighter particles of low-density matter, since these have less rotational momentum than more massive objects. This effect occurs even though the object is being impacted equally from all sides. The reason is that if a virtual particle hits an object in a direction opposite to its spin, it collides with a greater force than if it hit in the same direction as its rotation. Thus, it has been calculated that, in space, grains of graphite about 100 nanometers across would slow their rotation to about one third of their original speed in 2.7 million years. Experiments in ultra-high vacuum conditions using lasers are in progress to demonstrate this.
As far as planets in their orbits are concerned, the presence of the ZPE does have an effect. For planets in orbits a reasonable distance from their star or sun, the effect is minor. However, for planets close to their sun or star, there is an effect due to the fact that the star or sun itself has an augmented strength of the ZPE due to the jiggling of the particles making up the sun. In the case of the planet Mercury, when its orbit brings it closer to the sun (perihelion) it runs into a greater density of the ZPE and virtual particles than when it is farthest away (aphelion). Ballistically, there is a relatively greater retarding force from the augmented ZPE when it is close to the sun than when it is farther away. The effect on the planet is to cause its orbit perihelion to precess around the sun. Einstein tried to account for this using relativity; he had to use 4 items in his calculation to do so. Three of those items made the effect too great to agree with observation, so a fourth was included to reduce the effect. In contrast, using the action of the ZPE, a straightforward calculation gives the correct result immediately. This is all explained in detail with the math on pages 283 to 288 in the Monograph.
Q.5: Effects of a low ZPE on planet velocity.
First, the speed of planets in their orbits is governed by gravity and its associated equations. Those equations show no effect on planetary motion with a variable ZPE. The reason is that all the variables in the equations cancel out leaving the orbit velocity unchanged. Any ZPE effect is extremely small compared with gravity. The major effect is seen in Mercury with the advance of the perihelion of the planet (orbit precession) rather than a change in orbit velocity. Note that this increase in orbit precession rate will only occur as the ZPE increases significantly. Since the ZPE is now near its maximum, the planetary orbit precession rates are also at their maximum, though still small compared with Mercury; in the past, they were even less.
However, the second point is the most important here. When the ZPE was low, electric and magnetic effects were much greater. According to the role of Marklund convection in plasma filaments, the sun is positively charged and the planets increasingly negative as we go out in the solar system. This effect would be enhanced in the early solar system with low ZPE. Peratt in his papers and book, “Physics of the Plasma Universe,” gives an equation governing orbital motion when a body is under the influence of both electromagnetic attraction as well as gravity. This equation shows that with a low ZPE, the planets would orbit the sun a little faster, and also be a little closer to the sun. As the ZPE increased, the electromagnetic component gradually dropped off, just leaving gravity to control orbit velocities and times, and the orbit radius may have increased slightly as electromagnetic attraction lessened. It may well be for this reason that earth originally had a 360- day year. The change to our present 365-day year had nothing to do with Mars, but everything to do with plasma physics. So ultimately, plasma physics has an important role to play in all this.
Blessings, Barry Setterfield, 1st December 2022.
Barry Setterfield's Web Site, Genesis Science Research
Barry… your answers are truly astounding. I thought I was gaining clarity thru listening to the EU crew. Obviously, there is a very different physics at work here than described by Thornhill. Fascinating that ZPE could be so well documented many times throughout much of the 20th century and merit zero mention in the EU model. This is a blind spot that stuns me. Thornhill has his prejudices too.
I must read and review carefully your answers and dig in much deeper to your monograph. My takeaway is that your grasp of this is almost without peers. I take it that there is no cadre of physicists that see things quite the way that you do… certainly nothing equivalent to the Thunderbird Project.
My goal is to provide a readable explanation of astrophysics for the laymen that challenges the standard academic model. I can only do this conceptually as I don’t have the mathematical skill to seek understanding by comprehending formulas. I am an author, not a scientist, and certainly not a mathematician. I could barely make an A in the freshman college Algebra class!
I have dug deep enough to uncover the variances in your view from Thornhill’s. But must study much more to be comfortable that I understand. I’m excited about the work ahead. Thank you for keeping me on the right path.
One last comment. It’s an interesting point that you and Thornhill are both Aussies. Maybe it’s easier to understand the universe differently than the academics do by living ‘down under’… your see different stars and see the stars differently! That’s catchy- I might have to use it in the book.
Blessings to you. I thank you for the care that you took in answering my questions. It is truly a treasure trove that I will return to again and again.
It is a huge blessing that I know you and Lambert and can engage in these dialogues.
Hi Doug, Some years ago Chuck Missler introduced us to the Metacosm.
It’s utterly amazing that man is stationed midway between the very large and the very small. Science explores only the tangible world. As we learn more about physical reality it gets fuzzy and more complex. Barry’s notes on the ZPE show this. We use the “scientific method” in probing both the Macrocosm and the Macrocosm.
Yet we who know Jesus have access to a vast library of revealed data. Information obtained by revelation is excluded by science. We believers are a minority as well so we are usually outvoted by the logic driven majority. Occasionally our insights are accepted when all else fails>
The reality is that Jesus “has the whole world in His hand.”
Yes everything we study scientifically is part of the created, physical universe. We tend to think that is all there is. Science can work only on a consensus basic. Science and Revelation
From time to time there are paradigm shifts in the prevailing, accepted world view. Rather that allowing only atheistic presuppositions, pagan ideas slip in
What is Revelation from God?
Because of the positive role of science we are less influenced by pagan mythology or irrational models such as “chance.” Science is Utopian insisting that things are getting better and man is in control of his destiny.
In reality God is the Manager in Chief. History is going somewhere as as time goes by God reveals more about Himself, Hebrews One. As creatures of habit we don't’ like changed imposed on us by invisible Agencies. “Come weal or come woe? The status is quo.”
“He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. 16 For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether (a) thrones or (b) dominions or (c) principalities or (d) powers. All things were created through Him and for Him. 17 And He is before all things, and in Him all things consist. (synistēmi) 18 And He is the head of the body, the church, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in all things He may have the preeminence. 19 For it pleased the Father that in Him all the fullness (pleroma) should dwell, 20 and by Him to reconcile all things to Himself, by Him, whether things on earth or things in heaven, having made peace through the blood of His cross...” ( Colossians 1)
It appears the man has been Providentially placed midway between the very small and the very large. This suggests there is an Absolute Geocentricity
Notes from Chuck Missler: The nucleus of a hydrogen atom is on the order of 10-13 cm., and that the radius of its electron's orbit is on the order of 10-8 cm. ---a difference of 100,000 times. (If we were to make a model of that, making the nucleus the size of a pinhead, the electron would be a football field away!) Looking at this volumetrically, for every part of "matter," there are 1015 parts of "non-matter"! (That's about the same ratio of one minute to a billion years!) The atoms which make up the molecules of all physical things are more empty than filled! So if matter is made up of so much "empty space," it is any wonder that neutrinos routinely pass through our entire world unnoticed? And then it isn't so difficult for us to imagine how our Lord Jesus Christ, in His resurrection body, was able to pass through walls - even though He was manifestly tangible, not just a "spirit": "Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have." (Luke 24:39)
Our Finite Universe: One of the most significant discoveries of 20th century science has been the fact that our universe is not infinite, but finite. It had a beginning. That's what has led to the many conjectures making up the "Big Bang" models. We are asked to accept the explanation that "first there was nothing, and then it exploded"
From thermodynamics we know that heat flows from warm bodies toward colder bodies. If the universe was infinitely old, it would be at a uniform temperature; it isn't. It is still cooling. It had a beginning. And it will have an end. But it is in the microcosm that we find the most disturbing discoveries. You would think that if we take any length, we could cut it in half, and then take a remainder and cut it in half, etc. At least theoretically, we assume this process could go on forever. However, we now discover that when we get down to 10-33 cm., it loses its "locality." We now understand that all matter, energy, and even time are made up of "quanta": indivisible units. (That's why they call this arena of study "quantum physics.") The "Planck length" is 10-33 cm.; the "Planck time," 10-43 sec. So the astonishing discovery is that we exist within a finite boundary between the macrocosm of astronomy and the microcosm of quantum physics...There are some scholars that suspect that the original Creation was fractured as a result of the curse in Genesis 3, and that the four dimensions presently available to us which we call the "physical world" (three physical dimensions, plus time) are only a subset of a more comprehensive reality, the "spiritual" world...
So the astonishing discovery is that we exist within a finite boundary between the macrocosm of astronomy and the microcosm of quantum physics. In fact, we are in a digital simulation. The eminent atheist Paul Davies has admitted that "it seems that the entire universe may be nothing more than a thought in the mind of God." It's entirely possible we live in a Holographic Universe!
The Boundaries of Our “Reality”: The radius of the observable universe, based on secular astronomy, is estimated to be about 46.5 billion light-years and its diameter about 28.5 gigaparsecs (93 billion light-years, or 8.8×1026 meters or 2.89×1027 feet).
Moving toward the region of “largeness” (which we will designate as the “Macrocosm”), we plunge into the realm of astronomy and astrophysics. Here we discover that one of the most profound conclusions of 20th century science is that the universe is finite. (It may be expanding, but it is not infinite.) And we know it had a beginning...a 10-Dimensional Metacosm.
Both the astrophysicists and the quantum physicists now tell us that we apparently live in a hyperspace of more than four dimensions—ten is a current estimate. (It was Albert Einstein’s insight that time is a fourth physical dimension which led to the now fabled “General Theory of Relativity” that created such a climax for 20th century science. It is interesting that the Apostle Paul had already listed these four dimensions in Ephesians 3:18.)
Of the ostensible ten dimensions we now know exist, only four are directly perceptible by our current technologies. The remaining six are “curled” (to use the nomenclature of metric tensors) in less than 10-33 cm. (smaller than the wavelength of light) and thus are not directly discernible by current methodologies. It is also interesting that the Hebrew sage known as Nachmonides, writing in the 13th century, concluded from his study of the Book of Genesis that the universe has ten dimensions, but only four of them are “knowable” by man...
It would seem that the domain of the “Metacosm”—which includes the elusive six dimensions—is the realm of the trans-dimensional phenomena such as angels, demons, and, perhaps, UFOs and other paranormal phenomena.
Summary: Our observable universe appears to be about 1026 meters in diameter. Man appears to be in the middle--between the macrocosm and the microcosm. The smallest possible length, the Planck length, is 1.616 x 10-35 meters. Staggering though these numbers are, the unseen realm (off limits to science, but knowable through revelation) is far grander. But this is only what is observable! The physical world, with only four dimensions, is apparently embedded in a more solid, unseen spiritual world of perhaps ten dimensions.
1 God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, 2 has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds; 3 who being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, 4 having become so much better than the angels, as He has by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they.
5 For to which of the angels did He ever say: “You are My Son, Today I have begotten You”? And again: “I will be to Him a Father, And He shall be to Me a Son”? 6 But when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says: “Let all the angels of God worship Him.” 7 And of the angels He says: “Who makes His angels spirits And His ministers a flame of fire.” 8 But to the Son He says: “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom. 9 You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You With the oil of gladness more than Your companions.” 10 And: “You, Lord, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the work of Your hands. 11 They will perish, but You remain; And they will all grow old like a garment; 12 Like a cloak You will fold them up, And they will be changed. But You are the same, And Your years will not fail.” 13 But to which of the angels has He ever said: “Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool”? 14 Are they not all ministering spirits sent forth to minister for those who will inherit salvation?1 Therefore we must give the more earnest heed to the things we have heard, lest we drift away. 2 For if the word spoken through angels proved steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just reward, 3 how shall we escape if we neglect so great a salvation, which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed to us by those who heard Him, 4 God also bearing witness both with signs and wonders, with various miracles, and gifts of the Holy Spirit, according to His own will? 5 For He has not put the world to come, of which we speak, in subjection to angels. 6But one testified in a certain place, saying: “What is man that You are mindful of him, Or the son of man that You take care of him? 7 You have made him a little lower than the angels; You have crowned him with glory and honor, And set him over the works of Your hands. 8 You have put all things in subjection under his feet.” For in that He put all in subjection under him, He left nothing that is not put under him. But now we do not yet see all things put under him. 9But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, for the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that He, by the grace of God, might taste death for everyone. 10 For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings. 11For both He who sanctifies and those who are being sanctified are all of one, for which reason He is not ashamed to call them brethren, 12 saying: “I will declare Your name to My brethren; In the midst of the assembly I will sing praise to You.” 13And again: “I will put My trust in Him.” And again: “Here am I and the children whom God has given Me.” 14Inasmuch then as the children have partaken of flesh and blood, He Himself likewise shared in the same, that through death He might destroy him who had the power of death, that is, the devil, 15and release those who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 16For indeed He does not give aid to angels, but He does give aid to the seed of Abraham. 17Therefore, in all things He had to be made like His brethren, that He might be a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people. 18For in that He Himself has suffered, being tempted, He is able to aid those who are tempted.
1 Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. 2 For by it the elders obtained a good testimony3 By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that the things which are seen were not made of things which are visible.
4 By faith Abel offered to God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, through which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts; and through it he being dead still speaks. 5 By faith Enoch was taken away so that he did not see death, “and was not found, because God had taken him”; for before he was taken he had this testimony, that he pleased God. 6 But without faith it is impossible to please Him, for he who comes to God must believe that He is, and that He is a rewarder of those who diligently seek Him. 7 By faith Noah, being divinely warned of things not yet seen, moved with godly fear, prepared an ark for the saving of his household, by which he condemned the world and became heir of the righteousness which is according to faith. 8 By faith Abraham obeyed when he was called to go out to the place which he would receive as an inheritance. And he went out, not knowing where he was going. 9 By faith he dwelt in the land of promise as in a foreign country, dwelling in tents with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise; 10 for he waited for the city which has foundations, whose builder and maker is God. 11 By faith Sarah herself also received strength to conceive seed, and she bore a child when she was past the age, because she judged Him faithful who had promised. 12 Therefore from one man, and him as good as dead, were born as many as the stars of the sky in multitude—innumerable as the sand which is by the seashore.
13 These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off were assured of them, embraced them and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth. 14 For those who say such things declare plainly that they seek a homeland. 15 And truly if they had called to mind that country from which they had come out, they would have had opportunity to return. 16 But now they desire a better, that is, a heavenly country. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God, for He has prepared a city for them. 17 By faith Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises offered up his only begotten son, 18 of whom it was said, “In Isaac your seed shall be called,” 19 concluding that God was able to raise him up, even from the dead, from which he also received him in a figurative sense. 20 By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau concerning things to come. 21 By faith Jacob, when he was dying, blessed each of the sons of Joseph, and worshiped, leaning on the top of his staff. 22 By faith Joseph, when he was dying, made mention of the departure of the children of Israel, and gave instructions concerning his bones. 23 By faith Moses, when he was born, was hidden three months by his parents, because they saw he was a beautiful child; and they were not afraid of the king’s command. 24 By faith Moses, when he became of age, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter, 25 choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God than to enjoy the passing pleasures of sin, 26 esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt; for he looked to the reward. 27 By faith he forsook Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king; for he endured as seeing Him who is invisible. 28 By faith he kept the Passover and the sprinkling of blood, lest he who destroyed the firstborn should touch them. 29 By faith they passed through the Red Sea as by dry land, whereas the Egyptians, attempting to do so, were drowned. 30 By faith the walls of Jericho fell down after they were encircled for seven days. 31 By faith the harlot Rahab did not perish with those who did not believe, when she had received the spies with peace. 32 And what more shall I say? For the time would fail me to tell of Gideon and Barak and Samson and Jephthah, also of David and Samuel and the prophets: 33 who through faith subdued kingdoms, worked righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions, 34 quenched the violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong, became valiant in battle, turned to flight the armies of the aliens. 35 Women received their dead raised to life again. Others were tortured, not accepting deliverance, that they might obtain a better resurrection. 36 Still others had trial of mockings and scourgings, yes, and of chains and imprisonment. 37 They were stoned, they were sawn in two, were tempted, were slain with the sword. They wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins, being destitute, afflicted, tormented— 38 of whom the world was not worthy. They wandered in deserts and mountains, in dens and caves of the earth. 39 And all these, having obtained a good testimony through faith, did not receive the promise,
40 God having provided something better for us, that they should not be made perfect apart from us.
Lambert's Articles on Science and Creation
What Holds the Universe Together?
"In many separate revelations---each of which set forth a portion of the Truth
---and in different ways God spoke of old to [our] forefathers in and by the prophets,
[But] in the last of these days He has spoken to us in [the person of a] Son,
Whom He appointed Heir and lawful Owner of all things, also by and through Whom
He created the worlds and the reaches of space and the ages of time
---[that is] [He made, produced, built, operated, and arranged them in order].
He is the sole expression of the glory of God---
[the Light-being, the out-raying or radiance of the divine],
---and He is the perfect imprint and very image of [God's] nature,
upholding and maintaining and guiding and propelling the universe by His mighty word of power..."
(Hebrews 1:2-3) (Amplified Bible).
Notes by Lambert Dolphin
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