There's a War on, Folks!

I have been intending to write this material up for well over a year and finally decided I should not put it off any longer. There is nothing new here that my mentor the late Ray C. Stedman did not teach, but I gained a new perspective on Bible Prophecy a year ago while preparing to speak at a prophecy conference in Modesto. (Tapes: The general subject has to do with the role of the church during the coming tribulation period. Ray Stedman is a much neglected Bible scholar so it my hope that more people would search out the profound things he wrote about--in this case on the subject of Bible prophecy.

Some of you may not have the foggiest idea of what this is all about! For background I suggest you read the book Ron Graff and I put on Internet two years ago. It's an overview of Bible prophecy for the ordinary person--with lots of more advanced notes in the Appendices. "Thy Kingdom Come, Thy Will be Done..." is available in printed form if you prefer. The online edition is on my web page, In addition the Prophecy Section of my web site library has a collection of articles on the topics below.

The subject of Bible Prophecy (Eschatology) is VERY important as I see it--more so now than ever before--because governments and churches and countless individuals make decisions, choices, and investments based on their understanding of how the future will unfold. The majority of churches in this country today are Amillennial nowadays--wrongly believing that the church has replaced Israel in the plan of God and that God has no special future in mind for the nation of Israel. (See for a comparison and contrast of Israel and the United States; and the Church). Other churches ignore eschatology altogether, feeling the subject is too difficult to understand and to unravel--(no one has a clear understanding of the correct interpretation so why bother?)

I'll assume the reader has a working knowledge of prophecy and knows something of the various schools of thought on prophecy. This short paper is intended to be a "think-piece" to stimulate discussion and hopefully a renewed interest in that neglected 20% of Scripture which deals with the future. That future--the end of the age--is crashing in on us rapidly now. It's not a good idea to be ill-prepared for what's coming down!

The Usual Pretribulation, Premillennial view

Summary: The next event in history will be the Rapture of the Church. It will be unannounced and could happen at any time. This event is described in 1 Thessalonians 4:13-5:11. For two thousand years God has been calling out a special class of people for Himself, a people separate and distinct from the nation Israel--a heavenly people with a different calling from Israel's. Ray Stedman (commenting on Ephesians 3) once said that God is today building one new man. Like the First Adam, the New Man will have body, soul and spirit. Israel corresponds to the body of the New Man, the church to the soul, and God Himself is the new Spirit. Israel relates best to earthly issues, the church to emotional and spiritual issues--the two groups have different callings and are given different promises. But in no way has the church "replaced" Israel in the plan of God. Paul emphasizes this at length in Romans 9, 10, and 11.The plan to create a church was not revealed in the Old Testament. God's plan to build a church was first announced by Jesus at Banias (Caesarea Philippi) fairly late in His ministry:

Now when Jesus came into the district of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, "Who do men say that the Son of man is?" And they said, "Some say John the Baptist, others say Elijah, and others Jeremiah or one of the prophets." He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?" Simon Peter replied, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God." And Jesus answered him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar-jona! For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the powers of death shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." (Matthew 16:12-19)

The clear intention of Jesus was an offensive not a defensive posture--the church would assault the very gates of Hell and the forces of evil would not be able to withstand this assault. The Church has been a-building for 2000 years now, since the Day of Pentecost. When the last of the chosen have been brought in to the church, God will turn His attention once again to Israel.

The Rapture of the church will be accompanied by the removal from earth of much of God's restraint of evil (which presently comes by the Holy Spirit through the salt and light functions of the church). This is described in 2 Thessalonians 2. Meanwhile the Church will (supposedly) be caught up into heaven and there experience (a) the Judgment Seat of Christ, and (b) the Marriage Supper of the Lamb. Meanwhile down on earth, the "man of sin" (the final Antichrist) will rise to power in Europe in cahoots with a false Messiah in Israel. Together they will negotiate a phony peace settlement in the Middle East (Isaiah calls this faulty treaty Israel's "Covenant with Death"). A world-wide false (harlot) church will rise to temporary power in this time frame--and enjoy the support of a united Western-world coalition whose power center is in Europe. The Jews will build and put into service their long-awaited Third Temple with a functioning priesthood and sacrifices. The removal of the church from the earth marks the end of a long interval of history following the death of Christ, ("the great parenthesis"), between the 69th and 70th weeks of Daniel. Thus Israel will return to the center stage of world history once again, and the God of Israel will at last fulfill His unconditional covenants with the patriarchs of Israel.

The tribulation period, seven years total, will change radically in character after 3.5 years of apparent world peace--especially in the Middle East. At that time a false Messiah in Israel will appear on the scene of history (he is the Second Beast of Revelation 13 fulfilling the warning of Jesus, John 5:43, "I have come in my Father's name, and you do not receive me; if another comes in his own name, him you will receive.") This "man of sin" will enter the Holy of Holies of that Third Temple and declare to the world that He is God. He erects an image of the "First Beast" who heads up the political, military and commercial power of Europe. This awful desecration of the temple was predicted by Jesus and is compared by Jesus (Mt. 24:15) to a similar, earlier desecration of the Second Temple by Antiochus Epiphanies (175-163 BC). The mid-trib point is the time for true believers in Jesus who are living in Judea at that time to flee for safety to nearby Jordan where they will be safely guarded by the Lord--while all hell breaks loose back in Israel.

"For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, and never will be. And if those days had not been shortened, no human being would be saved; but for the sake of the elect those days will be shortened." (Matthew 24:21-22)

A great and final war will break out in the Middle East in the second half of the tribulation period. Many details are given in the Bible. The principal powers involved are Egypt and allies, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Russia and armies from both the West and the East. It is quite likely that nuclear, biological and chemical weapons will be unloosed. In fact, at mid-trib, the God of Israel will personally intervene decisively in human affairs bringing great and terrible judgment on the nations of the world--including Israel. The second half of the tribulation period is variously called "the GREAT tribulation," "the Day of the Lord," and "the time of Jacob's trouble." (The term "the last days" refers to the entire time period between the First and Second Advents of our Lord). The period of history we live in now could be called "man's day," since to a large extent God allows man to have his own way. Apart from common grace to all men, and much restraint of evil, God now rules the universe but does not yet reign on earth--but this will soon change drastically, (see

Yet at this approaching darkest-of-all times in history, God (in mercy and grace) will place into service 144,000 trained Jewish evangelists who will have the zeal and vitality of the Apostle Paul. They will travel around the world, preaching the gospel of the kingdom to those who have never heard the good news--with the result that many millions will come to Christ. Animosity against God will, however, be so high that these new converts (the "tribulation saints") will be quickly put to death (martyred). The judgments of God in the second half of the tribulation period will be a combination of horrendous man-made, and terrible natural disasters, cascading in rapid succession--with the end result that the planet will be totally laid waste and devastated. The majority of people on earth will be killed. (The book of the Revelation goes into detail about all these things. Ray Stedman, again is the best,

Near the end of the seven year tribulation period, while World War III is raging out of control in the Middle East, Jesus Christ will return in power and glory to the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem from whence He departed 40 days after His resurrection in AD 33. Jesus will bring with Him at His epiphaneia "the armies of heaven" --which includes all of us, i.e., his saints. Together with Jesus we Christians will participate in the establishment of world-wide righteous government on earth. Thus the devastated planet will be rebuilt and repopulated under the Kingly rule of Jesus. Our Lord will sit on the throne of David in Jerusalem and reign on earth 1000 years. The believing Jews of the Old Testament will be resurrected at the end of the tribulation (Daniel 12, Hebrews 11:39-40) and God will at long last fulfill His literal promises to the nation Israel, promises made to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David, and to Jesus.

"Lest you be wise in your own conceits, I want you to understand this mystery, brethren: a hardening has come upon part of Israel, until the full number of the Gentiles come in, and so all Israel will be saved; as it is written, "The Deliverer will come from Zion, he will banish ungodliness from Jacob"; "and this will be my covenant with them when I take away their sins." As regards the gospel they are enemies of God, for your sake; but as regards election they are beloved for the sake of their forefathers. For the gifts and the call of God are irrevocable. Just as you were once disobedient to God but now have received mercy because of their disobedience, so they have now been disobedient in order that by the mercy shown to you they also may receive mercy. For God has consigned all men to disobedience, that he may have mercy upon all. O the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how inscrutable his ways! "For who has known the mind of the Lord, or who has been his counselor?" "Or who has given a gift to him that he might be repaid?" For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be glory for ever. Amen." (Romans 11:25-36)

As mentioned, during the thousand-year reign of Christ in earth, Christians will work together with the believers who survive Word War III (Mt. 25:31-46) to rebuild the earth. Then the judgment of all the wicked dead (the "Great White Throne" judgment) will occur (Rev. 20:11-15). Finally, God will renovate the heavens and the earth, by fire, (2 Peter 3:10-12, Rev. 21:1ff) removing all sources of evil sin permanently from both the heavens and the earth.

Very often books and lectures presenting this view of prophecy will be accompanied by a chart showing history from the time of Christ on into the future. My version of this chart is on my web site at I have made some subtle changes to the usual view, as will be explained below. At the time of the Rapture, the so-called "time line of history" on a typical end-time chart divides into two parallel sections. Christians are supposed to have been taken off far beyond the clouds to a land of clouds and beauty, bliss and tranquility, fully isolated forever from the terrible judgments of God taking place on earth. In other words, God will come to save us and take us out of this awful, sinful world to our just reward for living "good Christian lives." The implied view of heaven as a place of bliss and contentment in this scenario also suggests perpetual boredom and satiation with heavenly delights. But surely we shall soon miss the dynamics, the tensions, and the adventure of life back on earth? Are we not being trained for a more dynamic destiny than Sunday-school picnics in the clouds?

Because the above view of "going to heaven" when we die, or at the Rapture, is so lacking in realism and appeal, a good many people have decided that the church WILL go through the tribulation after all. This view is basically flawed because the tribulation period is basically a time of judgment on the unbelieving world, and Paul clearly says in 1 Thessalonians (5:9) that we (the church) have not been "appointed to wrath but to obtain salvation..." The church is the Bride of Christ. Christ is the Bridegroom, so the Lord will remove His bride to a place of safety before the "great and terrible day of the Lord." Why should only the last generation of Christians go through the tribulation when no other generation of believers have been asked to do this?

With these very brief remarks in mind, may I raise the following set of problems with the usual PreTrib PreMill point of view? I have not in any way abandoned my view of eschatology--I still agree with all the arguments that point to the Premill-Pretrib position being the correct interpretation of Scripture.

What I do believe is that we may have missed some key issues which deserve rethinking. To keep this article short, I'll first raise a set of questions about the above conventional scenario and then offer my speculative comments. Every week some new prophecy buff emails me with his (or her) new interpretations of prophecy and/or date setting. I have read almost all of the standard books on the shelves by prophecy experts, new and old--those who I agree with and those I don't. What I would like provoke is some new thinking on old doctrines, not a new interpretation altogether. I have come to think that there is much in the currently-preached Pretrib, PreMill position which is a cop out--resulting from a failure to think things through a bit more carefully.

Problems with the Standard Model

Where is heaven located?

Are there two aspects to the Second Coming or one?

Where does Jesus take the Church for the seven years of the tribulation period?

Paul teaches in 1 Corinthians that the church will (a) judge angels, and (b) judge the world. When and how does this take place?

Who trains and leads the 144,000 during the tribulation period?

Who trains and leads the faithful remnant who flees from Jerusalem to Bozrah and Petra during the last half of the tribulation period?

Where, exactly, are the evil angels ("the principalities and powers in the heavenly places") we are called to battle with--where do they reside? How are they to be deposed?

What is the overall goal of Jesus in returning to earth and setting up His kingdom here--with Jerusalem as the capital city of a restored earth, and Israel as the head of the nations?

What purpose might the heavenly city, New Jerusalem, play in all this?

What is God's overall plan for the church in this age, apart from winning converts to Christ?

To whom does the planet belong? Who is the rightful owner and how will He reclaim what is His?

What does the Lord Jesus do during the tribulation period?

What does the church do during the tribulation period? What (if any) is our relationship with events on earth during the tribulation period?

What should the church be doing while we wait for the Lord's appearing from heaven?

What will the Church be like at the end of the Age, just before the Rapture?

My Comments on the Above Issues

Where is heaven located?

When a person becomes a Christian, he or she is taken out of the kingdom of this world and placed into Christ, and translated into the kingdom of the Son of God's love. The believer IS NOW in heaven--though he does not realize this because the body has not yet been redeemed. The fact that we are actually now already in heaven (it is all around us) is evident from passages such as Ephesians 2 and Hebrews 12. Pay attention to the verb tenses:

And you he made alive, when you were dead through the trespasses and sins in which you once walked, following the course of this world, following the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that is now at work in the sons of disobedience. Among these we all once lived in the passions of our flesh, following the desires of body and mind, and so we were by nature children of wrath, like the rest of mankind. But God, who is rich in mercy, out of the great love with which he loved us, even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved), and raised us up with him, and made us sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus, that in the coming ages he might show the immeasurable riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus. For by grace you have been saved through faith; and this is not your own doing, it is the gift of God--not because of works, lest any man should boast. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them. (Ephesians 2:1-10)

And Hebrews 12:

"For you have not come to what may be touched, a blazing fire, and darkness, and gloom, and a tempest, and the sound of a trumpet, and a voice whose words made the hearers entreat that no further messages be spoken to them. For they could not endure the order that was given, "If even a beast touches the mountain, it shall be stoned." Indeed, so terrifying was the sight that Moses said, "I tremble with fear." But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable angels in festal gathering, and to the assembly of the first-born who are enrolled in heaven, and to a judge who is God of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect, and to Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood that speaks more graciously than the blood of Abel. See that you do not refuse him who is speaking. For if they did not escape when they refused him who warned them on earth, much less shall we escape if we reject him who warns from heaven. His voice then shook the earth; but now he has promised, "Yet once more I will shake not only the earth but also the heaven." This phrase, "Yet once more," indicates the removal of what is shaken, as of what has been made, in order that what cannot be shaken may remain. Therefore let us be grateful for receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, and thus let us offer to God acceptable worship, with reverence and awe; for our God is a consuming fire." (18-29)

Now let's take a look at that all-too familiar passage about the Rapture:

"But we would not have you ignorant, brethren, concerning those who are asleep, that you may not grieve as others do who have no hope. For since we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so, through Jesus, God will bring with him those who have fallen asleep. For this we declare to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, shall not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the archangel's call, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first; then we who are alive, who are left, shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air; and so we shall always be with the Lord. Therefore comfort one another with these words. But as to the times and the seasons, brethren, you have no need to have anything written to you. For you yourselves know well that the day of the Lord will come like a thief in the night. When people say, "There is peace and security," then sudden destruction will come upon them as travail comes upon a woman with child, and there will be no escape. But you are not in darkness, brethren, for that day to surprise you like a thief. For you are all sons of light and sons of the day; we are not of the night or of darkness. So then let us not sleep, as others do, but let us keep awake and be sober. For those who sleep sleep at night, and those who get drunk are drunk at night. But, since we belong to the day, let us be sober, and put on the breastplate of faith and love, and for a helmet the hope of salvation. For God has not destined us for wrath, but to obtain salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ, who died for us so that whether we wake or sleep we might live with him. Therefore encourage one another and build one another up, just as you are doing. (1 Thess. 4:13-5:11)

The passage says nothing about being caught up into heaven (as in 2 Cor. 12:1-9 for instance). It says only that we will be given our new resurrection bodies at that time and be caught up into the clouds (Greek: nephele: the clouds of the earth's atmosphere). Evidently we are not taken very far from earth while the events of the tribulation unfold on earth. Since we are already seated in Christ in the heavenly places we would not actually have to "go anywhere" to be in heaven. Heaven is all around us, it is not far away beyond the stars. We Christians are in heaven right now, and if we could put on our new bodies like a new suit of clothes, we'd be able to experience heaven in full, right around us!

Note: When Jesus ascended from the Mount of Olives, "...he was lifted up, and a cloud (nephele) took him out of their sight. And while they were gazing into heaven as he went, behold two men stood by them in white robes, and said, 'Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into heaven? This Jesus, who was taken from you into heaven, will come in the same way as you saw him go into heaven.'" (Acts 1:9-11). It is likely that the cloud referenced in 1 Thessalonians 4 is this same cloud. It could be a natural cloud of the sky, or perhaps the Shekinah cloud of glory. However the Rapture is not the same event at the Second Coming in glory, (Matthew 24:29-31) which will be visible world-wide. The Rapture not a visible event for those left behind on earth. See

By the way, I should introduce another complication here, for the sake of completeness. At the Rapture (or when we die--which ever comes first) the believer leaves time and enters eternity. Resurrection bodies are not constrained to earth's time frame as our present unredeemed bodies are. (See After His resurrection, in the 40 days before His ascension, our Lord demonstrated the ability to walk through closed doors, to conceal His identity, and to appear and disappear at will. That is, He could step in and out of earth's space-time frame and into the space-time frame of the heavenly places at will. Our new bodies will evidently have this same capability.

Are there two aspects to the Second Coming or one?

Here is where a bit of reading of Ray Stedman's commentary on the Olivet Discourse is helpful ( Ray says when the Lord comes for His church at the Rapture He is both coming and remaining with His saints! There is only one second coming of Christ. The Second Advent has two aspects: Jesus coming to be with His church but will be remaining with the church on earth (invisible). Then seven years later a public appearing of Jesus and the Church in glory takes place.

I said above that I believed the church was saved from "the wrath to come." Yes, for sure. We'll all be safe and sound in our indestructible amazing new resurrection bodies! We'll evidently be behind the scenes of world events, with our Lord, while He orchestrates the events of the last seven years. (See for my summary).

Regarding the Second Coming in glory, Ray says,

"Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken; then will appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory; and he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other."

"This is the most prophesied event in the Bible. The Old Testament contains many references to it, and it has been estimated that in the New Testament one verse out of ten refers to this coming of Jesus Christ. If all the references to this event were taken out of the New Testament, you find it unintelligible in many parts.

From "Presence" to Unveiling: But we must be careful to understand it in relation to the parousia, the presence of Jesus, which has been going on since the Church was taken out of the restrictions of time before the end of the age began. This flaming advent is part of the parousia, actually the event that marks the end of the secret presence. It is the outshining of his presence before the eyes of the whole world. What he has been in secret to his own during the dark days of the tribulation, he now will be openly before the whole world. He will especially manifest himself to the Lawless One. Paul says, "The Lord Jesus will slay him with the breath of his mouth and destroy him by his appearing and his coming" (2 Thessalonians 2:8).

That last phrase, "his appearing and his coming," is literally, "the epiphany of his parousia." Epiphany is a word that means unveiling, or outshining. Taken in that sense, Paul is calling this dramatic appearance of Jesus Christ, "the unveiling of his presence." It is the startling climax of the whole period which Jesus calls "the close of the age..."

Where does Jesus take the Church for the seven years of the tribulation period?

Jesus doesn't necessarily take us anywhere. He leaves us here on earth--or perhaps very nearby--certainly not out to a distant place beyond the far reaches of space. The church is called the Body of Christ in the New Testament. He is the Head and we are the torso. We can never be separated from the Head. Right now He is wearing His resurrection body and we are not, so when we get our new bodies, well then--"we are God's children now; it does not yet appear what we shall be, but we know that when he appears we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is." (1 John 3:2)

Paul teaches in 1 Corinthians that the church will (a) judge angels, and (b) judge the world. When and how does this take place?

Right now we know next to nothing about the angels and most of us know little about the righteous government our planet needs so desperately. What better training ground than for us to be eye-witnesses to all the unfolding events of the final seven years? It's not a pleasant thought really--rather sobering. But we were forewarned, and in fact we are already supposed to be doing the things Jesus told His disciples to be busy with. We are supposed to be training now so we can handle the end of the age and the coming Millennium. How else will be have the knowledge and experience to rule and reign with our Lord and work with Him in the judgment of the world and of angels?

"Nothing is covered up that will not be revealed, or hidden that will not be known. Therefore whatever you have said in the dark shall be heard in the light, and what you have whispered in private rooms shall be proclaimed upon the housetops. "I tell you, my friends, do not fear those who kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do. But I will warn you whom to fear: fear him who, after he has killed, has power to cast into hell; yes, I tell you, fear him! Are not five sparrows sold for two pennies? And not one of them is forgotten before God. Why, even the hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear not; you are of more value than many sparrows..."

"Fear not, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom. Sell your possessions, and give alms; provide yourselves with purses that do not grow old, with a treasure in the heavens that does not fail, where no thief approaches and no moth destroys. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. "Let your loins be girded and your lamps burning, and be like men who are waiting for their master to come home from the marriage feast, so that they may open to him at once when he comes and knocks. Blessed are those servants whom the master finds awake when he comes; truly, I say to you, he will gird himself and have them sit at table, and he will come and serve them. If he comes in the second watch, or in the third, and finds them so, blessed are those servants! But know this, that if the householder had known at what hour the thief was coming, he would not have left his house to be broken into. You also must be ready; for the Son of man is coming at an unexpected hour."

Peter said, "Lord, are you telling this parable for us or for all?" And the Lord said, "Who then is the faithful and wise steward, whom his master will set over his household, to give them their portion of food at the proper time? Blessed is that servant whom his master when he comes will find so doing. Truly, I say to you, he will set him over all his possessions. But if that servant says to himself, `My master is delayed in coming,' and begins to beat the menservants and the maidservants, and to eat and drink and get drunk, the master of that servant will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he does not know, and will punish him, and put him with the unfaithful. And that servant who knew his master's will, but did not make ready or act according to his will, shall receive a severe beating. But he who did not know, and did what deserved a beating, shall receive a light beating. Every one to whom much is given, of him will much be required; and of him to whom men commit much they will demand the more.

"I came to cast fire upon the earth; and would that it were already kindled! I have a baptism to be baptized with; and how I am constrained until it is accomplished! Do you think that I have come to give peace on earth? No, I tell you, but rather division; for henceforth in one house there will be five divided, three against two and two against three; they will be divided, father against son and son against father, mother against daughter and daughter against her mother, mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law and daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law." He also said to the multitudes, "When you see a cloud rising in the west, you say at once, `A shower is coming'; and so it happens. And when you see the south wind blowing, you say, `There will be scorching heat'; and it happens. You hypocrites! You know how to interpret the appearance of earth and sky; but why do you not know how to interpret the present time? "And why do you not judge for yourselves what is right? As you go with your accuser before the magistrate, make an effort to settle with him on the way, lest he drag you to the judge, and the judge hand you over to the officer, and the officer put you in prison. I tell you, you will never get out till you have paid the very last copper." (Luke 12)

Who trains and leads the 144,000 during the tribulation period?

These marvelous Jewish evangelists (Rev. 7) will be suddenly converted and pressed into immediate service. Surely only Jesus Himself, as Chief Shepherd, Chief Apostle and Chief Prophet, can quickly and adequately instruct them and grow them up for service in a short time. After all, it was Jesus who privately and personally trained the Apostle Paul. He was not one of the Twelve who lived and traveled with Jesus. Yet he ended up writing much of the New Testament. At the parousia of Jesus (when He returns to earth to remain here) Jesus will evidently assemble and personally train and then lead these gallant evangelists. One example of this presence of Jesus with the 144,000 during the tribulation is given in Revelation 14.

Ray Stedman (, says,

Then I looked, and there before me was the Lamb, standing on Mount Zion, and with him 144,000 who had his name and his Father's name written on their foreheads. And I heard a sound from heaven like the roar of rushing waters and like a loud peal of thunder. The sound I heard was like that of harpists playing their harps. And they sang a new song before the throne and before the four living creatures and the elders. No one could learn the song except the 144,000 who had been redeemed from the earth. These are those who did not defile themselves with women, for they kept themselves pure. They follow the Lamb wherever he goes. They were purchased from among men and offered as firstfruits to God and the Lamb. No lie was found in their mouths; they are blameless. {Rev 14:1-5 NIV}

"It is important to see exactly the location where these 144,000 and the Lamb are seen. The opening sentence tells us they were "standing on Mount Zion" -- the temple mount in Jerusalem. This means that they were on earth, in Jerusalem, not in heaven. And they are seen together, the Lamb (Jesus). They are 144,000 male Jews chosen out of Israel -- "Christ's Commandos," as we called them earlier.

I want to try and put some loose ends together here. According to the promise of Jesus given to the seven churches in the opening chapters of this book, he told them in several places that he would take the church (i.e., the true believers of this present age), to be with him before this last seven-year period would begin upon the earth. This was accomplished, as Paul describes it in First Thessalonians 4, in what is called the "rapture" (or departure) of the church to be with Christ. The last word of that Thessalonian passage is, "so shall we ever be with the Lord," {1 Th 4:17b KJV}.

The problem that people get into at that point is they think that being "with the Lord" in heaven means to be taken far off into space somewhere. We all have difficulty thinking of heaven as being right here on earth as well as off in space. In other words, heaven is another dimension of existence just beyond our present senses. You can be in heaven and still be on earth at the same time. As I read these prophetic passages I am more and more convinced that this will be the case -- the church is with the Lord, but the Lord is on earth during the whole last seven years. The church is with him, but invisible to the rest of the world, and ministering to this select group of 144,000 Jews as Jesus appears to them from time to time.

If this is true, Jesus will be in exactly the same condition with them as he was with the eleven disciples after his resurrection, when for a period of 40 days he appeared from time to time to them. At different times and in different places he was with them, and yet he would not be with them; he would step back into the realm of invisibility after appearing in their midst. This seems to be the situation here. These are not only 12 disciples -- they are 12 times 12 times 1,000 -- all men of Israel chosen for a special work on earth during these last days. If you can put that scene into your imagination you will get a much clearer picture of what is going on in these scenes."

Who trains and leads the faithful remnant who flees from Jerusalem to Bozrah and Petra during the last half of the tribulation period?

If you'll look through Appendix "S" in our book "Thy Kingdom Come..." I suggest there that Jesus, the Great Shepherd of the Sheep, will personally meet with, and train, His faithful remnant of Jews--believing Israel--at Petra, during the last half of the Tribulation period. As the greater Moses He will then lead this faithful remnant back to Jerusalem at the Second Coming.

Ray Stedman has a great discussion of Jesus as the Avenger of Blood for His own people Israel during the last half of the tribulation. (See It is Jesus who Himself tramples out the "grapes of God's wrath"--the judgment of unbelieving Israel which precedes His second coming in glory (the epiphaneia). Centuries when the Jews had a chance to release Jesus, or the thief, Barabbas. The crowd chose Jesus saying, "May His blood be upon us and on our children." (Matt. 27:25). Ray says,

In Verse 13 [of Revelation 19] there is still another name [given to Jesus at His return]: "He is dressed in a robe dipped in blood, and his name is the Word of God." That Word of God is associated with the robe dipped in blood and with the armies of heaven following him, as well as with the sharp sword that comes out of his mouth. Some commentators refer to the "robe dipped in blood" as descriptive of the cross, of the sacrifice of Jesus. I do not take it that way. I think it refers to a remarkable dialog found in the 63rd chapter of Isaiah, a dialog between the prophet and the Warrior-Messiah. As Isaiah is shown the coming of Christ, it is as though he is standing in Jerusalem looking toward the south, toward Edom, and he sees a great warrior coming with garments stained red. He asks the question:

Who is this coming from Edom, from Bozrah, with his garments stained crimson? Who is this, robed in splendor, striding forward in the greatness of his strength? {Isa 63:1a NIV}

The warrior answers, "It is I, speaking in righteousness, mighty to save." {Isa 63:1b NIB}

The prophet asks again: Why are your garments red, like those of one treading the winepress? {Isa 63:2 NIV}

The warrior replies, "I have trodden the winepress alone; from the nations no one was with me. I trampled them in my anger and trod them down in my wrath; their blood spattered my garments, and I stained all my clothing. For the day of vengeance was in my heart, and the year of my redemption has come." {Isa 63:3-4 NIV}

Ray Stedman further suggests, in several of his books, that the activity of Jesus on earth during the tribulation will resemble His work during the 40 days after His resurrection and prior to His ascension from the Mount of Olives.

"During that forty-day period the disciples of Jesus were what we might call "Pre-church Christians." They believed in Jesus but they were not yet members of the church, for the church was not formed until the day of Pentecost when the Holy Spirit was poured out. During the close of the age, the disciples (or as Jesus calls them "the elect") will be what we might call "Post-church Christians." The church has been removed from the world, at least from any visible participation in world affairs. Since we know that Christians will be given glorified bodies like their Lord's (and Paul says that, once removed from this life, the church will be forever "with the Lord"), it seems highly likely that church Christians will join the Lord Jesus in this ministry behind the scenes during the tribulation. They will be like Moses and Elijah who appeared with the transfigured Christ on the Mount. The picture then is clear. Jesus will come for his church and take the members into a new relationship with him. Then he, with them, will remain throughout the "end of the age" period, appearing only to those whose hearts are ready to believe in him. Rumors of his presence will continually be spread abroad, so that men will be saying in that day as they said during the forty-day period, "Where is he?" Authorities will search for him and will not be able to find him, but false prophets will claim to know where he is." (

Where, exactly, are the evil angels ("the principalities and powers in the heavenly places") we are called to battle with--where do they reside? How are they deposed?

In his very helpful book City of God: City of Satan, Robert C. Linthicum notes that evil is deeply embedded in the major cities of the world--and has been for centuries. The fallen angels who constitute what the Bible names as "the world rulers of this present darkness" are associated with men and human institutions here on earth. The angels are not "out there" in outer space, beyond the clouds, because as we have seen, the heavenly places actually surround us on all sides. The material world is embedded in the spiritual world. Christians who work in the inner city know that the spiritual warfare of building a church in the cities of the world invites furious, intense opposition--because the powers of darkness are localized there in the city, alongside the human counterparts who are under the control of these fallen angels.

"For though we live in the world we are not carrying on a worldly war, for the weapons of our warfare are not worldly but have divine power to destroy [Satanic] strongholds. We destroy arguments and every proud obstacle to the knowledge of God, and take every thought captive to obey Christ, being ready to punish every disobedience, when your obedience is complete." (2 Cor. 10:3-5)

The strongholds of evil the church is supposed to be always assaulting and attacking constantly--all our lives--are in and around the cities we live in--they are not in outer space. (No wonder James says that "whoever would be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God.") The church is supposed to be busy "taking territory" from the devil here and now--by prayer and intercession, by the propagation of the gospel, by the clear and loving presentation of the truth in the public square. The church is not supposed to be a passive participant in the very society Jesus is trying to reclaim and liberate for His kingdom!

But we are not attacking people in our warfare. The church is like a beachhead landing force, an advanced team of guerrilla soldiers established on the earth as an advanced arm of the main Armies of the Lord who will arrive at the parousia to finish the final take-over of the planet from its present lord, Satan the usurper.

What is the overall goal of Jesus in returning to earth and setting up His kingdom here--with Jerusalem as the capital city of a restored earth, and Israel as the head of the nations?

Notice that Hebrews 12 closes with a warning that God's next radical intervention in history will be more than the mere shaking of the earth at He did at Mt. Sinai. He will shake the heavens as well:

See that you do not refuse him who is speaking. For if they did not escape when they refused him who warned them on earth, much less shall we escape if we reject him who warns from heaven. His voice then shook the earth; but now he has promised, "Yet once more I will shake not only the earth but also the heaven." This phrase, "Yet once more," indicates the removal of what is shaken, as of what has been made, in order that what cannot be shaken may remain. Therefore let us be grateful for receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, and thus let us offer to God acceptable worship, with reverence and awe; for our God is a consuming fire.(12:25-28)

Revelation 16 describes the fall of all the major of earth in the last great earthquake occurring at the time Christ returns to the Mt. Of Olives. Evidently ridding the earth of the legions of evil angels who rule the world system from the heavenly places, and removing the majority of men who hate God to the death, will involve the near destruction of the whole planet,

The seventh angel poured his bowl into the air, and a loud voice came out of the temple, from the throne, saying, "It is done!" And there were flashes of lightning, voices, peals of thunder, and a great earthquake such as had never been since men were on the earth, so great was that earthquake. The great city [Jerusalem]was split into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell, and God remembered great Babylon, to make her drain the cup of the fury of his wrath. And every island fled away, and no mountains were to be found; and great hailstones, heavy as a hundred-weight, dropped on men from heaven, till men cursed God for the plague of the hail, so fearful was that plague." (Revelation 16:17-21)

Isaiah spoke of this same time of great shaking when the [angelic] powers of heaven would be thrown down:

"Terror, and the pit, and the snare are upon you, O inhabitant of the earth! He who flees at the sound of the terror shall fall into the pit; and he who climbs out of the pit shall be caught in the snare. For the windows of heaven are opened, and the foundations of the earth tremble. The earth is utterly broken, the earth is rent asunder, the earth is violently shaken. The earth staggers like a drunken man, it sways like a hut; its transgression lies heavy upon it, and it falls, and will not rise again. On that day the LORD will punish the host of heaven, in heaven, and the kings of the earth, on the earth. They will be gathered together as prisoners in a pit; they will be shut up in a prison, and after many days they will be punished. Then the moon will be confounded, and the sun ashamed; for the LORD of hosts will reign on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem and before his elders he will manifest his glory." (Isaiah 24:17-23)

Remember Genesis? Why was man put on earth in the first place? To rule and to reign here as God's steward and king. That dominion was lost in the fall, and the rule of the world fell into the hands of the Adversary where it has remained ever since. Hebrews 2 develops the of the coming again of Jesus to restore man to his intended estate as ruler on this planet.

"For it was not to angels that God subjected the world [age] to come, of which we are speaking. It has been testified somewhere, "What is man that thou art mindful of him, or the son of man, that thou carest for him? Thou didst make him [man] for a little while lower than the angels, thou hast crowned him with glory and honor, putting everything in subjection under his feet." Now in putting everything in subjection to him [man], he left nothing outside his control. As it is, we do not yet see everything in subjection to him. But we see Jesus, who for a little while was made lower than the angels, crowned with glory and honor because of the suffering of death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for every one. For it was fitting that he, for whom and by whom all things exist, in bringing many sons to glory, should make the pioneer of their salvation perfect through suffering. For he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified have all one origin. That is why he is not ashamed to call them brethren, saying, "I will proclaim thy name to my brethren, in the midst of the congregation I will praise thee." And again, "I will put my trust in him." And again, "Here am I, and the children God has given me." Since therefore the children share in flesh and blood, he himself likewise partook of the same nature, that through death he might destroy him who has the power of death, that is, the devil, and deliver all those who through fear of death were subject to lifelong bondage."

Clearly what Jesus has in mind is the liberation of planet earth. He is the rightful owner and heir. It is His planet, His universe--not ours.

God invites the church to battle here and now as the advanced vanguard of God's approaching army of liberation:

"Finally, be strong in the Lord and in the strength of his might. Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. For we are not contending against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world rulers of this present darkness, against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places. Therefore take the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand. Stand therefore, having girded your loins with truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness, and having shod your feet with the equipment of the gospel of peace; besides all these, taking the shield of faith, with which you can quench all the flaming darts of the evil one. And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. Pray at all times in the Spirit, with all prayer and supplication."

Viewing in a vision the course of world events as they would take place after the Rapture of the church, (Revelation 4-5), the Apostle John saw God the Father hand over the title deed to the planet earth to His Son, Jesus, so that Jesus was now free to direct all the events of the end-time and His return to earth as rightful king. Jesus is also the Commander and Chief of the Armies of Lord (Yahweh Sabaoth). He will take charge of the coming invasion and skillfully plan the entire campaign of the end-time. His headquarters? On earth most likely--behind the scenes--with His church--since the Head of the church and can not be separated from the Body of Christ.

What purpose does the heavenly city, New Jerusalem, play in all this?

The grand city of New Jerusalem, a great satellite city 1500 miles on a side, is described at the very end of the Bible. I think it is already in existence right now. I suspect Jesus has built it for us (i.e., for believing Jews and Christians who will be able to go there because we will have our resurrection bodies with their new space-time travel capacities). In fact even today the Rabbis in Jerusalem believe the Temple in Jerusalem was, and will be again, a gate into other dimensions, a stair-portal to heaven.

"Let not your hearts be troubled; believe in God, believe also in me. In my Father's house are many rooms; if it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you? And when I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and will take you to myself, that where I am you may be also. And you know the way where I am going." (John 14:1-4)

Is New Jerusalem the prepared place Jesus has been building for us the past 2000 years? I think this is quite possible. During the tribulation period Christians and resurrected Jews (people who have their resurrection bodies) will have work on earth to do. But we shall also be free to explore the heavens--I think this includes time and space travel to see the rest of the universe and to work for the Lord there, and I expect we'll have wonderful new living quarters in New Jerusalem.

The present world population is over 6 billion people, of whom surely no more than 5 percent are true believers in Christ. The total population of the world since the First Advent has not exceeded 10 billion people. If we assume 5% Christians over 2000 years it is conceivable that the true church of Jesus Christ might number 500 million people. Suppose the City of New Jerusalem was designed to house the entire resurrected church and also the OT saints of Israel (and any other outlying saints as well). Perhaps the City might have a population of one billion persons. It sounds crowded, but for a city 1500 miles on a side, the space allocation per person amounts to about 3 cubic miles!

Could it be that the entire church will at least watch and pray during the entire tribulation period while our Commander in Chief actively orchestrates all the events of the end time which involve the capturing of earth from Satan and His hordes? This is speculation on my part. I have no proof this is the way it will actually be--to my mind it is a simply a reasonable hypothesis for discussion purposes. The whole church, not just the present generation of the church, would, in this scenario, witness the tribulation from the ramparts of the heavenly city, from seats in the balcony, as Chuck Missler once suggested.

Meantime on earth, after Christ returns, the earth will be repopulated by believers (the sheep survivors of the sheep-and-goats judgment of Matthew 25:31ff). Their children will all be sinners in the line of the First Adam and will each have to make a decision for salvation just as we do now. Though righteous government will exist on earth, with Jesus "ruling the nations with a rod of iron," and Satan will be in chains, many will still choose the path of evil--as has happened in every generation since Adam.

The government of the twelve tribes of Israel will be given to the original disciples as Jesus promised, (Matthew 12:28). Christians will be appointed to rule the gentile nations with their Lord and work in the restoration under the direction of the King of kings, who has full authority over all human affairs from His throne in Jerusalem.

What is God's overall plan for the church in this age, apart from winning converts to Christ?

The church is here on earth to win people to Jesus Christ, and to build them up to spiritual maturity. The church is "salt" and "light" in society and the church is God's "secret government" on earth (See Ray Stedman's series on Spiritual Warfare, and don't miss Ray's classic book on the church, "Body Life,"

To whom does the planet belong? Who is the rightful owner and how will He reclaim what is His?

The entire universe was created through Jesus and for Him. He is the heir of all things. (Col. 1:16)

As the Second Adam, Jesus regains the dominion over earth, over nature which the First Adam lost in the Fall.

"Hear another parable. There was a householder who planted a vineyard, and set a hedge around it, and dug a wine press in it, and built a tower, and let it out to tenants, and went into another country. When the season of fruit drew near, he sent his servants to the tenants, to get his fruit; and the tenants took his servants and beat one, killed another, and stoned another. Again he sent other servants, more than the first; and they did the same to them. Afterward he sent his son to them, saying, `They will respect my son.' But when the tenants saw the son, they said to themselves, `This is the heir; come, let us kill him and have his inheritance.' And they took him and cast him out of the vineyard, and killed him. When therefore the owner of the vineyard comes, what will he do to those tenants?" They said to him, "He will put those wretches to a miserable death, and let out the vineyard to other tenants who will give him the fruits in their seasons." Jesus said to them, "Have you never read in the scriptures: `The very stone which the builders rejected has become the head of the corner; this was the Lord's doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes'? Therefore I tell you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a nation producing the fruits of it." (Matthew 21:33-43)

What does the Lord Jesus do during the tribulation period?

I am suggesting, per Ray Stedman's great teaching, that all that happens during the liberation of the planet from Satan and his legions will be under the direction of an on-site military commander, with His angels and His church to assist Him:

What does the church do during the tribulation period? What (if any) is our relationship with events on earth during the tribulation period?

If nothing else observing the Lord at work through the entire tribulation period will certainly be the most intense learning experience we will ever know. The entire church (the saints of all ages) will be "on stage" or rather "backstage" during the tribulation. I don't know the extent to which we will be merely observers, but perhaps also active participants.

What should the church be doing while we wait for the Lord's appearing from heaven?

From the beginning the Lord has intended that His church should be constantly advancing the kingdom of God on earth, and hastening the return of our King. Remember the statement of Jesus, "I will build my church, and the gates of hell will not prevail against my church?"

We aren't going anywhere yet, not into outer space for the present Our work is on earth. We'll soon have our resurrection bodies so we can carry on after our Commander arrives to take charge of the final removal of evil from earth. Neither will the church succeed in taking over the planet on Christ's behalf, prior to His return, as some Postribulationists have thought.

Regarding the Judgment Seat of Christ--I think this process (the evaluation of every believer one by one) takes place right at the Rapture. It is outside of time, so can take place in an instant, or over a long period of time, whichever you prefer.

I would place the Marriage Supper of the Lamb as occurring at the beginning of the Millennium, not during the tribulation period when the Commander of the Armies of the Lord is busy with military matters. The believers of Israel will be raised from the dead just prior to the start of the Millennium, and we Christians, previously resurrected, will be joining them at this great feast with our Lord.

"...I heard what seemed to be the voice of a great multitude, like the sound of many waters and like the sound of mighty thunderpeals, crying, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God the Almighty reigns. Let us rejoice and exult and give him the glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his Bride has made herself ready; it was granted her to be clothed with fine linen, bright and pure"-- for the fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints. And the angel said to me, "Write this: Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb." And he said to me, "These are true words of God." (from Revelation 19)

What will the Church be like at the end of the Age, just before the Rapture?

The Old Testament predicts and confirms the failure of Israel under the terms of the Old Covenant. The predicted end of the church under the better promises of the New Covenant is no better. Jesus asked, "When the Son of man comes, will he find faith on earth?" (Luke 18:8). Paul in 2 Thessalonians speaks of world-wide apostasy in the church at the end of our age. The final form of the church, symbolized by the Church of Laodicea, will be complacent, apathetic and lukewarm, polluted and diluted by the values of the world around her.

"I know your works: you are neither cold nor hot. Would that you were cold or hot! So, because you are lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will vomit you out of my mouth. For you say, I am rich, I have prospered, and I need nothing; not knowing that you are wretched, pitiable, poor, blind, and naked." (Rev. 3:15-16)

(See also Ray Stedman's commentary on the Parable of the Mustard Seed,

The whole idea about how the church was supposed to function is outlined in Ephesians, in 1 Cor. 12-14, and other passages of the New Testament. All in all, we are given in the New Testament a full description of God's plan and purpose for the Church, which most churches pay little attention to today. The church was to be an organism, not an organization. The church was not to be building-centered, nor program-centered, and was to have non-hierarchical, servant-based leadership. The work of the ministry was to be conducted by the people of the church, with gifted, specially selected staff members in place to "equip the saints for the work of the ministry and to build up the Body of Christ..." The church--as the Bride of Christ on earth--was (and is) supposed to gather together frequently for instruction, prayer, worship and edification--centering all she does around her indwelling Lord. Then, during the week, the church--as the Body of Christ scatters. During the week, wherever one member of the Body is found in society, Christ is represented personally. The church was/is to shun the ways of the world, to guard her holy life-style, to be a caring community of strangers and pilgrims on earth, and to reveal by her lifestyle that she is a microcosm of the coming kingdom of God on earth. "Who is this who looks forth like the dawn, fair as the moon, bright as the sun, terrible as an army with banners," is an apt description of the Church as she is supposed to be, drawn from the Song of Solomon.

Sadly, the church will grow weaker and less effective as the age comes to a close, and there will be a concurrent rise of the false world harlot church which will dominate the early part of the tribulation period. The appeal of God in the Letters to the Seven Churches in the book of the Revelation is not to the churches as a whole, but to the righteous remnant of true believers in those churches who wish to please God in spite of the increasing compromises within the rest of their local church family members.

Closing Thoughts: The Revelation of God given to us in the Bible is complete. Nothing new is being given to us today in the form of fresh, new revelation from God. But as history moves forward, God illuminates the Scriptures, shedding light on obscure passages and clarifying the big picture. Prophecy becomes clear when it begins to happen around us. We are surely now very close to the time of the end.

I agree with Chuck Missler who said that the entire Word of God has more to say about the time of history into which we are now plunging than it had in prior ages of history--including even the time our Lord was with us on earth. The Day that is dawning will be grand and glorious, dreadful and terrible. and none can avoid it.

Then I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse! He who sat upon it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he judges and makes war. His eyes are like a flame of fire, and on his head are many diadems; and he has a name inscribed which no one knows but himself. He is clad in a robe dipped in blood, and the name by which he is called is The Word of God. And the armies of heaven, arrayed in fine linen, white and pure, followed him on white horses. From his mouth issues a sharp sword with which to smite the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron; he will tread the wine press of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. On his robe and on his thigh he has a name inscribed, King of kings and Lord of lords. (Revelation 19:11-16)

Some Favorite References

Ray Stedman's various messages on Bible Prophecy:

"Thy Kingdom Come, Thy Will be Done..." by Ron Graff and Lambert Dolphin. Online book,

Spiritual Warfare, by Ray C. Stedman, Spiritual Warfare and Spiritual Battles

God at War: The Bible and Spiritual Conflict, by Gregory A. Boyd, IV Press, Downers Grove, 1997.

City of God: City of Satan, by Robert C. Linthicum, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 1991.

The Church Impotent: The Feminization of Christianity, by Leon J. Podles, Spence Publishing, Dallas, 1999.

The Trivialization of God: The Dangerous Illusion of a Manageable Deity, by Donald W. McCullough, NavPress, Colorado Springs, 1995.

Discipling Nations: The Power of Truth to Transform Cultures, by Darrow L. Miller, YWAM Publishing, Seattle.

The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in History, by Jeffrey Burton Russell, Cornell U. Press, 1988.

Powers of Evil: A Biblical Study of Satan and Demons, by Sydney H.T. Page, Baker Books, 1995.

A Woman Rides the Beast, by Dave Hunt, Harvest House, Eugene, OR 1994

Every Prophecy of the Bible, by John F. Walvoord, Chariot Victor, Co. Springs, 1999.

The Nations, Israel, and the Church in Prophecy, by John F. Walvoord, Zondervan, 1988.

The Millennial Kingdom, by John F. Walvoord, Zondervan, 1959.

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March 28, 2023.