The Greek word can mean :

(a) solicitation to do evil, or,
(b) a test designed to prove one's character.

On Temptation and Testing

I know about the despair of overcoming chronic temptation.
It is not serious, provided self-offended petulance, annoyance at breaking records, impatience, etc. don't get the upper hand.
No amount of falls will really undo us if we keep on picking ourselves up each time.
We shall be very muddy and tattered children by the time we reach home.
But the bathrooms are all ready, the towels put out, and clean clothes in the airing cupboard.
The only fatal thing is to lose one's temper and give it up.
It is when we notice the dirt that God is most present in us; it is the very sign of his presence.

(C.S. Lewis, Letters

Greek Lexicon Notes

peirasmos: An experiment, attempt, trial, proving trial, proving: the trial made of you by my bodily condition, since condition served as to test the love of the Galatians toward Paul (Galatians. 4:14) the trial of man's fidelity, integrity, virtue, constancy an enticement to sin, temptation, whether arising from the desires or from the outward circumstances an internal temptation to sin of the temptation by which the devil sought to divert Jesus the Messiah from his divine errand of the condition of things, or a mental state, by which we are enticed to sin, or to a lapse from the faith and holiness adversity, affliction, trouble: sent by God and serving to test or prove one's character, faith, holiness temptation (i.e. trial) of God by men rebellion against God, by which his power and justice are, as it were, put to the proof and challenged to show themselves.

Also, to try whether a thing can be done to attempt, endeavor to try, make trial of, test: for the purpose of ascertaining his quality, or what he thinks, or how he will behave himself in a good sense in a bad sense, to test one maliciously, craftily to put to the proof his feelings or judgments to try or test one's faith, virtue, character, by enticement to sin to solicit to sin, to tempt of the temptations of the devil after the OT usage of God: to inflict evils upon one in order to prove his character and the steadfastness of his faith men are said to tempt God by exhibitions of distrust, as though they wished to try whether he is not justly distrusted by impious or wicked conduct to test God's justice and patience, and to challenge him, as it were to give proof of his perfections.

My brethren, count it all joy when you fall into various trials, (peirasmos)
knowing that the testing of your faith produces patience.
But let patience have its perfect work,
that you may be perfect and complete, lacking nothing.

If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God,
who gives to all liberally and without reproach, and it will be given to him.
But let him ask in faith, with no doubting,
for he who doubts is like a wave of the sea driven and tossed by the wind.
For let not that man suppose that he will receive anything from the Lord;
he is a double-minded man, unstable in all his ways. (James 1:2-8)


We are often blind to our own faults and quick to blame others for defects in ourselves! In Psychology this mechanism is called Projection. it's a biggie!

Why do you look at the speck of sawdust in your brother’s eye and pay no attention to the plank in your own eye? How can you say to your brother, ‘Let me take the speck out of your eye,’ when all the time there is a plank in your own eye? You hypocrite, first take the plank out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to remove the speck from your brother's eye." (Jesus in Matthew 7:3-5)

Other Words from Jesus

Judge not, and you shall not be judged. Condemn not, and you shall not be condemned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven.

“Give, and it will be given to you: good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over will be put into your bosom. For with the same measure that you use, it will be measured back to you.” (Luke 6:36-38)

“Whatever I tell you in the dark, speak in the light; and what you hear in the ear, preach on the housetops.

“And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. But rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.

“Are not two sparrows sold for a copper coin? And not one of them falls to the ground apart from your Father’s will. “But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. “Do not fear therefore; you are of more value than many sparrows.“ (Matthew 10:27-31)

From The New Testament

"But with me it is a very small thing that I should be judged by you or by a human court. In fact, I do not even judge myself. For I know of nothing against myself, yet I am not justified by this; but He who judges me is the Lord. Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord comes, who will both bring to light the hidden things of darkness and reveal the counsels of the hearts. Then each one’s praise will come from God. (1 Corinthians 4:3-5)

Therefore let him who thinks he stands take heed lest he fall. No temptation has overtaken you except such as is common to man; but God is faithful, who will not allow you to be tempted beyond what you are able, but with the temptation will also make the way of escape, that you may be able to bear it. (1 Corinthians 10:12, 13)

God Does not Tempt us

Blessed is the man who endures temptation; for when he has been approved,
he will receive the crown of life which the Lord has promised to those who love Him.

Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am tempted by God”; for God cannot be tempted (apeirastos) by evil, nor does He Himself tempt anyone. But each one is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desires. Then, when desire has conceived, it gives birth to sin; and sin, when it is full-grown, brings forth death."

[exelko: to draw out, metaph. to lure forth: in hunting and fishing as game is lured from its hiding place, so man by lure is allured from the safety of self-restraint to sin. In the language of the hunting is transferred to the seduction of a harlot. deleazo: to bait, catch by a bait, metaph. to beguile by blandishments, allure, entice, deceive.]

Do not be deceived, (led astray) my beloved brethren. Every good gift (every act of giving) and every perfect gift is from above, and comes down from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or shadow of turning. (Astronomy: no parallax, no eclipsing). Of His own will (having willed it) He brought us forth (apokyeo: begat us again) by the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of His creatures.” (James 1:12-18)

Our actions in life today as fallen persons are mostly selfish and self-centered.

Jesus said to them again, “Most assuredly, I say to you, I am the door of the sheep. All who ever came before Me are thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not hear them. I am the door. If anyone enters by Me, he will be saved, and will go in and out and find pasture. The thief does not come except to steal, and to kill, and to destroy...

I have come that they may have life, and that they may have it more abundantly. “I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd gives His life for the sheep...

As the Father knows Me, even so I know the Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep. And other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they will hear My voice; and there will be one flock and one shepherd. “Therefore My Father loves Me, because I lay down My life that I may take it again. No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This command I have received from My Father.” (John 10:7-18)


The Enticement of Evil

Sex, Drugs, Rock 'n Roll

Hiding in the Rock

The Ego Papers

How God Trains Us

The Ruthlessness of God

The Absolutes of God

God’s Discipline

Man's Lost Dominion

The Anguish of Adam

Adam's Diary of Creation and the Fall

Made in the Image of God

The Theme of the Great Harlot 

Discipleship Papers

The Consequence Engine

The Scars of Sin

Carnal Christians

Jezebel and Athaliah

A Realistic Approach to Attractions

Deliberate Sin 

Denial: Not a River in Egypt


The OT Hebrew equivalent of the Greek word peirasmos is nacah.

ָָnâçâh, naw-saw'; a primitive root; to test; by implication, to attempt:—adventure, assay, prove, tempt, try.

TWOT Reference: 1373 KJV Translation Count — Total: 36x. The KJV translates Strong's H5254 in the following manner: prove (20x), tempt (12x), assay (2x), adventure (1x), try (1x). to test, try, prove, tempt, assay, put to the proof or test.

nacah is used in Deuteronomy 8, which Jesus quoted when He was tempted…Israel-Jesus-Us is the  model for God's successful testings today.

Deuteronomy 8:2-5 (NKJV) "And you shall remember that the Lord your God led you all the way these forty years in the wilderness, to humble you and TEST you, to know what was in your heart, whether you would keep His commandments or not. So He humbled you, allowed you to hunger, and fed you with manna which you did not know nor did your fathers know, that He might make you know that man shall not live by bread alone; but man lives by every word that proceeds from the mouth of the Lord. Your garments did not wear out on you, nor did your foot swell these forty years. You should know in your heart that as a man chastens his son, so the Lord your God chastens you.

Deuteronomy 8:11-17 (NKJV) “Beware that you do not forget the Lord your God by not keeping His commandments, His judgments, and His statutes which I command you today, lest—when you have eaten and are full, and have built beautiful houses and dwell in them; and when your herds and your flocks multiply, and your silver and your gold are multiplied, and all that you have is multiplied; when your heart is lifted up, and you forget the Lord your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage; who led you through that great and terrible wilderness, in which were fiery serpents and scorpions and thirsty land where there was no water; who brought water for you out of the flinty rock; who fed you in the wilderness with manna, which your fathers did not know, that He might humble you and that He might TEST you, to do you good in the end—then you say in your heart, ‘My power and the might of my hand have gained me this wealth.’

A proof test is a form of stress test to demonstrate the fitness of a load-bearing structure. An individual proof test may apply only to the unit tested, or to its design in general for mass-produced items. (Wikipedia).

In Service Training

Discipleship is greatly misunderstood by many today but the concept is thoroughly Biblical.

Then Jesus said to His disciples, “If anyone desires to come after Me,
let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me.
“For whoever desires to save his life will lose it,
but whoever loses his life for My sake will find it.
“For what profit is it to a man if he gains the whole world, and loses his own soul?
Or what will a man give in exchange for his soul?
“For the Son of Man will come in the glory of His Father with His angels,
and then He will reward each according to his works."
(Matthew 16:24-27)




by Dave Roper

Why comes temptation but for man to meet
And master and make crouch beneath his feet,
And so be pedestaled in triumph? --Robert Browning

Blessed is the man who perseveres under trial, because when he has stood the test, he will receive the crown of life that God has promised to those who love him. When tempted, no one should say, "God is tempting me." For God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does he tempt anyone; but each one is tempted when, by his own evil desire, he is dragged away and enticed. Then, after desire has conceived, it gives birth to sin; and sin, when it is full-grown, gives birth to death. Don’t be deceived, my dear brothers. Every good and perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of the heavenly lights, who does not change like shifting shadows. He chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created (James 1:12-18).

Life is temptation. It pursues us through childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age and senility–right up to the gates of heaven. It entices us at work and play. It intrudes into our thoughts and dreams, and even into our prayers. "Temptations to sin are sure to come," Jesus said. 

God could have spared us from such enticement, but he has determined not to do so–for good reason: "God permits temptation to sin," said Augustine, "to transform it into greater good." 

"Bad people, in one sense, know very little about badness," C. S, Lewis said. "They have lived a sheltered life by always giving in. We never find out the strength of the evil impulse within us until we try to fight it..." 

Temptation makes us aware of "the strength of the evil impulse within us," and reveals the fragile stuff of which we’re made. It humbles us. It makes us more reliant on God’s strength, and therefore less likely to yield. 

James goes so far as to say we are "blessed" by temptation (the same word found in Jesus’ Beatitudes) for when we have persevered (resisted temptation) we will receive the "crown of life." James uses a word for crown that in his day referred to the olive wreath given to those who competed in the games and ran well. The crown of life is a winner’s crown given to one who has run life’s race, finished strong and is "pedestaled in triumph."

Though God allows temptation he is not the source of it, James assures us. "When tempted, no-one should say, ‘God is tempting me.’ For God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does he tempt anyone" (James 1:13). 

It is not in God’s nature to draw us into sin. No, we are the problem. As Pogo, that wise old possum put it, "We have met the enemy and he is us," We are tempted when we are "dragged away and enticed" by our own desires–our longings for something other than God, or something more than God has chosen to give us. 

Sin begins with a bare thought. Then we allow our minds to fantasize–focus on the thought and embellish it. We linger over the fantasy; we feel the pleasure it initially bestows. Then we assent to it’s urges and act upon them, after which we taste sin’s lethal fruit–guilt, regret, sorrow, boredom, alienation, a hunger and weariness that has no cure. That’s how temptation "gives birth to sin; and sin, when it is full-grown, gives birth to (soul) death."

Later on, James will tell us that there is another dynamic at work: an evil personality behind all temptation (James 4:7). It is our adversary the devil who plays upon our pride and other sinful proclivities, who "baits" us, to use James’ exact word, hooks us and draws us into sin. Jesus described him as a "liar and a murderer" (John 8:44), a devious, homicidal maniac akin to Dr. Hannibal Lecter, the psychiatrist turned psychopathic killer in The Silence of the Lambs. Lecter was called "Hannibal the Cannibal," because he ate his victims.  Satan likewise is skulking about, "looking for someone to devour" (1 Peter 5:8). He is a predator always on the prowl, hungry for flesh–and we are his prey. 

Like most psychopaths, however, Satan is suave and charming. "He hath power to assume a pleasing shape," Hamlet said. He is a gentleman with civil manners and impeccable taste. He was high—born and therefore can insinuate himself into good company. He surrounds himself with beautiful people and makes their behavior–even deviant and dangerous behavior–look good to us. We read about their life—styles and "eat it up," as they say, not knowing that we are the ones who are about to be consumed. Satan is up to no good.

God, on the other hand, is nothing but good, and has nothing but good in mind for us: "Every good and perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of the heavenly lights, who does not change like shifting shadows." He is the creator of light–all that is good and true and beautiful–and the one who gives us light. There are no shadows or darkness in him, no double—dealing, no deceit, no duplicity. He is pure truth. 

By means of truth God "chose to give us birth…that we might be a kind of first fruits of all he created" (James 1:18). This is another way of saying that God’s purposes are wholly good. In contrast to Satan who wants to take life, God longs to give it. The "word of truth" is the means by which life was originally given and the means by which it is sustained and brought to completion. Through truth we become God’s "first—fruits–the cream of the crop, the crème de la crème, the very best that a man or woman can be. 

How, then, can we avoid being taken in by Satan’s menace and deceit? By taking heed to God’s word. Here’s how it works.

Satan’s proposals always begin with a feint, a false lead, a lie, some subtle twist to the truth which, if acted upon, would tear us away from God and terminate us. His proposals rarely seem evil–our minds are repelled by obvious evil. More often they come in under the guise of good. Satan adds a tincture of grace and beauty to every lure lest we recognize its lethal toxicity. It’s so easy to be taken in.

We must meet every one of Satan’s lies with truth–meet it when it first enters our minds. Thomas à Kempis said, "Temptations are more easily overcome if they are never allowed to enter. Meet them at the door as soon as they knock, and do not let them in. 

The way to fend off Satan is to meet him at the beginning before he gathers strength and overwhelms you. Meet him with a word from God and banish him, as you would dismiss some obnoxious traveling salesman, before he gets his foot in the door. Remind yourself of some word that God has given you that speaks to the particular lie Satan is advancing and submit yourself to that truth. 

That was our Lord’s response to the devil’s temptations. Satan’s strategy was to taunt Jesus into disobedience, but with each assault, our Lord seized upon a specific text: "It is written…." In each case he countered Satan’s deceit with a corresponding truth and humbly submitted himself to it. 

That’s what James calls "perseverance"–a dogged determination to pursue holiness when the conditions of holiness are not favorable. It is resisting the devil by recalling what God has asked you to do and determining by his grace to do it. It is the way to overcome the evil one. "One little word," says Luther, "will fell him." 

I’m reminded of a Far Side cartoon I saw some years ago, depicting a woolly mammoth lying on it’s side dropped by a tiny arrow. Two awe—struck cave men stand side—by—side with bows in their hands, gaping at what they had done. "We’ve got to remember that spot," one says to the other. 

Satan has a soft, unprotected underbelly: he is vulnerable to God’s Word. To that end we must give ourselves to knowing his Word, hiding it in our hearts (Psalm 119:11); meditating on it day and night (Psalm 1: 2); allowing it to "dwell in (us) richly" (Colossians 3:16). Satan’s power lies in deceit; our weapon is truth. "Our defense is sure."

According to Homer’s Odyssey, Odysseus was trying to get home to his wife and kiddies and was having a hard time doing it. Along the way he encountered the enchanting and dangerous Circe whom, it was said, turned men into pigs. 

When Odysseus successfully avoided her attractions, she confided in him that sterner tests lay ahead–the Sirens, those lusty, luscious maidens whose island lay along the straits and whose songs lured travelers away from hearth and home. 

Circe advised Odysseus to have his men plug their ears with wax and tie himself to the mast. Odysseus, however, had another, better idea. He did have his men plug their ears and he did tie himself to a mast, but he also had his friend Orpheus, who was also an accomplished musician, sit on the deck and make a melody so sweet it would turn his heart away from the Sirens. In that way he "stood the test." He stayed his narrow course and made it home to his beloved Penelope.

So, when Satan begins to croon one of his alluring, fatal tunes, sing to yourself the lyrics of God’s Word, "sing and make music in your heart to the Lord" (Ephesians 5:19). This is Paul’s "way of escape" (1 Corinthians 10:13). It’s the only way to get through. --David Roper

Jesus Was Tempted


1 Then Jesus was led up by  the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 

2 And when He had fasted forty days and forty nights, afterward He was hungry. 

3 Now when the tempter came to Him, he said, “If You are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread.”

4 But He answered and said, “It is written,  ‘Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.’ ”

5 Then the devil took Him up  into the holy city, set Him on the pinnacle of the temple, 6 and said to Him, “If You are the Son of God, throw Yourself down. For it is written: ‘He shall give His angels charge over you,’ and, ‘In their hands they shall bear you up, Lest you dash your foot against a stone.’ ”

7 Jesus said to him, “It is written again,  ‘You shall not tempt the Lord your God.’ ”

8 Again, the devil took Him up on an exceedingly high mountain, and  showed Him all the kingdoms of the world and their glory. 

9 And he said to Him, “All these things I will give You if You will fall down and worship me.”

10 Then Jesus said to him, “Away with you, Satan! For it is written,  ‘You shall worship the Lord your God, and Him only you shall serve.’ ” |

11 Then the devil  left Him, and behold,  angels came and ministered to Him. (Matthew 4:1-11


The Follower of Jesus Christ has Three Enemies

They are The Flesh, The World, and the Devil

Unmasking the Flesh

Then Came Amalek

The Elements of the World System (Part One)

The Elements of the World System (Part Two)

All the Help we Need is Available

"Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears My voice and opens the door, I will come in to him and dine with him, and he with Me.“To him who overcomes I will grant to sit with Me on My throne, as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His throne." (Revelation 3:20-21)

"For the word of God is living and effective and sharper than any double-edged sword, penetrating as far as the separation of soul and spirit, joints and marrow. It is able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart.

No creature is hidden from him, but all things are naked and exposed to the eyes of him to whom we must give an account.

Therefore, since we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens ​— ​Jesus the Son of God ​— ​let us hold fast to our confession.

For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who has been tempted in every way as we are, yet without sin. Therefore, let us approach the throne of grace with boldness, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help us in time of need." (Hebrews 4:12-16)]

"What then shall we say to these things?
If God is for us, who can be against us?
He who did not spare His own Son,
but delivered Him up for us all,
how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things?

Who shall bring a charge against God’s elect?
 It is God who justifies.
Who is he who condemns? 

It is Christ who died, and furthermore is also risen,
who is even at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us.

Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? 
Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?

As it is written:

“For Your sake we are killed all day long;
We are accounted as sheep for the slaughter.”

Yet in all these things we are more than conquerors through Him who loved us.
For I am persuaded that neither death nor life,
nor angels nor principalities nor powers, nor things present nor things to come,
nor height nor depth, nor any other created thing,

shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ
Jesus our Lord." (Romans 8:31-39)

Psalm 68 

To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David. A Song.

Let God arise, Let His enemies be scattered; 
Let those also who hate Him flee before Him. 

2 As smoke is driven away, So drive them away; 
As wax melts before the fire, So let the wicked perish at the presence of God. 

3 But let the righteous be glad; Let them rejoice before God; 
Yes, let them rejoice exceedingly.

4 Sing to God, sing praises to His name, 
Extol Him who rides on the clouds, 
By His name YAH, And rejoice before Him.

5 A father of the fatherless, a defender of widows, 
Is God in His holy habitation. 

6 God sets the solitary in families; 
He brings out those who are bound into prosperity; 
But the rebellious dwell in a dry land.

7 O God, when You went out before Your people, 
When You marched through the wilderness, Selah 

8 The earth shook; The heavens also dropped rain at the presence of God; 
Sinai itself was moved at the presence of God, the God of Israel. 

9 You, O God, sent a plentiful rain, 
Whereby You confirmed Your inheritance, When it was weary. 

10 Your congregation dwelt in it; 
You, O God, provided from Your goodness for the poor.

11 The Lord gave the word; 
Great was the company of those who proclaimed it: 

12 “Kings of armies flee, they flee, 
And she who remains at home divides the spoil. 

13 Though you lie down among the sheepfolds, 
You will be like the wings of a dove covered with silver,
and her feathers with yellow gold.” 

14 When the Almighty scattered kings in it,
It was white as snow in Zalmon.

15 A mountain of God is the mountain of Bashan; 
A mountain of many peaks is the mountain of Bashan. 

16 Why do you fume with envy, you mountains of many peaks? 
This is the mountain which God desires to dwell in;
Yes, the LORD will dwell in it forever.

17 The chariots of God are twenty thousand, 
Even thousands of thousands; 
The Lord is among them as in Sinai, in the Holy Place. 
18 You have ascended on high, 
You have led captivity captive; 
You have received gifts among men, 
Even from the rebellious, 
That the LORD God might dwell there.

19 Blessed be the Lord, Who daily loads us with benefits, 
The God of our salvation!  Selah 

20 Our God is the God of salvation; 
And to GOD the Lord belong escapes from death.

21 But God will wound the head of His enemies, 
The hairy scalp of the one who still goes on in his trespasses. 

22 The Lord said, “I will bring back from Bashan, 
I will bring them back from the depths of the sea, 

23 That your foot may crush them in blood, 
And the tongues of your dogs may have their portion from your enemies.”

24 They have seen Your procession, O God, 
The procession of my God, my King, into the sanctuary. 

25 The singers went before, the players on instruments followed after; 
Among them were the maidens playing timbrels. 

26 Bless God in the congregations, 
The Lord, from the fountain of Israel. 

27 There is little Benjamin, their leader, 
The princes of Judah and their company, 
The princes of Zebulun and the princes of Naphtali.

28 Your God has commanded your strength; 
Strengthen, O God, what You have done for us. 

29 Because of Your temple at Jerusalem, 
Kings will bring presents to You. 

30 Rebuke the beasts of the reeds, 
The herd of bulls with the calves of the peoples, 
Till everyone submits himself with pieces of silver. 
Scatter the peoples who delight in war. 

31 Envoys will come out of Egypt; 
Ethiopia will quickly stretch out her hands to God.

32 Sing to God, you kingdoms of the earth; 
Oh, sing praises to the Lord,  Selah 

33 To Him who rides on the heaven of heavens, 
which were of old! Indeed, He sends out His voice, a mighty voice. 

34 Ascribe strength to God; His excellence is over Israel, 
And His strength is in the clouds. 

35 O God, You are more awesome than Your holy places. 
The God of Israel is He who gives strength and power to His people.

Blessed be God!


But you, beloved, (agapetos) building (epoikodomeo) yourselves up on your most holy faith,
praying in the Holy Spirit, keep yourselves in the love of God,
looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life.
And on some have mercy, with discernment; (diakrino) 
but others save with fear, pulling them out of the fire,
hating even the undergarment (chiton) defiled by the flesh.

Now to Him who is able to keep you from stumbling,
And to present you faultless
Before the presence of His glory with exceeding joy,

Who alone is wise,
Be glory and majesty,
Dominion and power,
Both now and forever.
(Jude 20-25)

Lambert Dolphin's Main Library 
Email is welcome: Lambert Dolphin
Archive for Newsletters

Library Annex 
(800+ new articles since 2018. Free, help thyself)  

Audio Library (mp3)
My Search


Music Library

Hallelujah What a Savior
Majestic Sweetness Sits Enthroned
Our God Will Go Before
Come Thou Almighty King
On Jordan's Stormy Banks

Are You Washed in the Blood?

Audio Library (mp3)
My Search

Newsletter 44 May 2022
Newsletter 45 December 2022.

      Google Custom Search

November 8, 2020, April 2, 2021, June 6, 2021. January 8, 2023. April 1, 2023. May 20, 2023. August 11, 2023